Doctor of Philosophy, McMaster University (2010)
Merritt Maduke, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
CLC transporters catalyze the exchange of Cl(-) for H(+) across cellular membranes. To do so, they must couple Cl(-) and H(+) binding and unbinding to protein conformational change. However, the sole conformational changes distinguished crystallographically are small movements of a glutamate side chain that locally gates the ion-transport pathways. Therefore, our understanding of whether and how global protein dynamics contribute to the exchange mechanism has been severely limited. To overcome the limitations of crystallography, we used solution-state (13)C-methyl NMR with labels on methionine, lysine, and engineered cysteine residues to investigate substrate (H(+)) dependent conformational change outside the restraints of crystallization. We show that methyl labels in several regions report H(+)-dependent spectral changes. We identify one of these regions as Helix R, a helix that extends from the center of the protein, where it forms the part of the inner gate to the Cl(-)-permeation pathway, to the extracellular solution. The H(+)-dependent spectral change does not occur when a label is positioned just beyond Helix R, on the unstructured C-terminus of the protein. Together, the results suggest that H(+) binding is mechanistically coupled to closing of the intracellular access-pathway for Cl(-).
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10858-015-9898-7
View details for Web of Science ID 000352711900004
CLC transporters catalyze transmembrane exchange of chloride for protons. Although a putative pathway for Cl(-) has been established, the pathway of H(+) translocation remains obscure. Through a highly concerted computational and experimental approach, we characterize microscopic details essential to understanding H(+)-translocation. An extended (0.4 µs) equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of membrane-embedded, dimeric ClC-ec1, a CLC from Escherichia coli, reveals transient but frequent hydration of the central hydrophobic region by water molecules from the intracellular bulk phase via the interface between the two subunits. We characterize a portal region lined by E202, E203, and A404 as the main gateway for hydration. Supporting this mechanism, site-specific mutagenesis experiments show that ClC-ec1 ion transport rates decrease as the size of the portal residue at position 404 is increased. Beyond the portal, water wires form spontaneously and repeatedly to span the 15-Å hydrophobic region between the two known H(+) transport sites [E148 (Gluex) and E203 (Gluin)]. Our finding that the formation of these water wires requires the presence of Cl(-) explains the previously mystifying fact that Cl(-) occupancy correlates with the ability to transport protons. To further validate the idea that these water wires are central to the H(+) transport mechanism, we identified I109 as the residue that exhibits the greatest conformational coupling to water wire formation and experimentally tested the effects of mutating this residue. The results, by providing a detailed microscopic view of the dynamics of water wire formation and confirming the involvement of specific protein residues, offer a mechanism for the coupled transport of H(+) and Cl(-) ions in CLC transporters.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1317890111
View details for Web of Science ID 000330587600048
View details for PubMedID 24379362