Predictors of appendicitis on computed tomography among cases with borderline appendix size.
2015; 22 (4): 385-394
Ischemic colitis due to a mesenteric arteriovenous malformation in a patient with a connective tissue disorder.
Journal of radiology case reports
2014; 8 (12): 9-21
Confident diagnosis of appendicitis when the appendix is borderline (6 to 7 mm) in size can be challenging. This retrospective study assessed computed tomography (CT) findings that are most predictive of appendicitis when the appendix is borderline in diameter. Three radiologists conducted separate, blind retrospective reviews of 105 contrast-enhanced CTs with borderline appendices. Presence or absence of appendicitis was confirmed by chart review of clinical or surgical outcomes. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) and the receiver operating characteristic for CT features predictive of appendicitis. Absence of intraluminal air (OR = 5.11, p < 0.001), wall hyperemia (OR = 3.92, p = 0.002), wall thickening (OR = 29.7, p < 0.001), and fat stranding (OR = 3.85, p = 0.003) were significant findings in univariate logistic regression. Using a multivariate model, we found that the absence of intraluminal air (OR = 6.04, p = 0.002) and wall thickening (OR = 24.6, p < 0.001) remained statistically significant and were unaffected by adjustment for gender and pediatric age. The area under the curve was significantly greater for the multivariate model than the initial, clinical CT impressions (p = 0.024). The combination of wall thickening and absence of intraluminal air was 92.6 % (95 % CI 75.7-99.1) sensitive and 82.4 % (95 % CI 65.5-93.2) specific for appendicitis. Wall thickening and the absence of intraluminal air are prominent predictors of appendicitis and, if present together, these features may aid in identifying appendicitis on CT when the appendix is borderline in size.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10140-015-1297-6
View details for PubMedID 25687166
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: hypoenhancement on arterial phase computed tomography predicts biological aggressiveness
2014; 16 (4): 304-311
Ischemic colitis is a rare, life-threatening, consequence of mesenteric arteriovenous malformations. Ischemia ensues from a steal phenomenon through shunting, and may be compounded by the resulting portal hypertension. Computed tomographic angiography is the most common first-line test because it is quick, non-invasive, and allows for accurate anatomic characterization. Also, high-resolution three-dimensional images can be created for treatment planning. Magnetic resonance angiography is similarly sensitive for vascular mapping. Conventional angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis and also allows for therapeutic endovascular embolization. Our patient underwent testing using all three of these modalities. We present the first reported case of this entity in a patient with a vascular connective tissue disorder.
View details for DOI 10.3941/jrcr.v8i12.1843
View details for PubMedID 25926912
Current techniques in the performance, interpretation, and reporting of CT colonography.
Gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics of North America
2010; 20 (2): 169-192
Contrary to pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNET) are commonly hyperenhancing on arterial phase computed tomography (APCT). However, a subset of these tumours can be hypoenhancing. The prognostic significance of the CT appearance of these tumors remains unclear.From 2001 to 2012, 146 patients with well-differentiated PNET underwent surgical resection. The degree of tumour enhancement on APCT was recorded and correlated with clinicopathological variables and overall survival.APCT images were available for re-review in 118 patients (81%). The majority had hyperenhancing tumours (n = 80, 68%), 12 (10%) were isoenhancing (including cases where no mass was visualized) and 26 (22%) were hypoenhancing. Hypoenhancing PNET were larger, more commonly intermediate grade, and had higher rates of lymph node and synchronous liver metastases. Hypoenhancing PNET were also associated with significantly worse overall survival after a resection as opposed to isoenhancing and hyperenhancing tumours (5-year, 54% versus 89% versus 93%). On multivariate analysis of factors available pre-operatively, only hypoenhancement (HR 2.32, P = 0.02) was independently associated with survival.Hypoenhancement on APCT was noted in 22% of well-differentiated PNET and was an independent predictor of poor outcome. This information can inform pre-operative decisions in the multidisciplinary treatment of these neoplasms.
View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12139
View details for Web of Science ID 000332989700002
MR colonography and MR enterography.
Gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics of North America
2010; 20 (2): 323-346
The technical objective of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is to acquire high-quality computed tomography images of the cleansed, well-distended colon for polyp detection. In this article the authors provide an overview of the technical components of CTC, from preparation of the patient to acquisition of the imaging data and basic methods of interpretation. In each section, the best evidence for current practices and recommendations is reviewed. Each of the technical components must be optimized to achieve high sensitivity in polyp detection.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.giec.2010.02.007
View details for PubMedID 20451809
Gastrointestinal Amyloidosis: Approach to Treatment.
Current treatment options in gastroenterology
2003; 6 (1): 17-25
The bowel is a common site for pathologic processes, including malignancies and inflammatory disease. Colorectal cancer accounts for 10% of all new cancers and 9% of cancer deaths. A significant decrease in the incidence of colorectal cancer and cancer death rates has been attributed to screening measures, earlier detection, and improved therapies. Virtual colonoscopy (VC), also known as computed tomography colonography, is an effective method for detecting polyps. However, in light of increasing concerns about ionizing radiation exposure from medical imaging and potential increased risk of future radiation-induced malignancies, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is seen as an increasingly attractive alternative. Improvements in MRI technology now permit three-dimensional volumetric imaging of the entire colon in a single breath hold at high spatial resolution, making VC with MRI possible.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.giec.2010.02.010
View details for PubMedID 20451820
The main treatment goals in amyloidosis are twofold: 1) to diagnose the underlying disease state accurately to guide effective primary therapy (if available) and 2) to ameliorate symptoms. The correct diagnosis is essential because disease-modifying therapies vary widely according to the underlying primary pathology. Primary treatment options remain limited. The best evidence is for high-dose chemotherapy, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with primary systemic amyloidosis. High-flux hemodialysis (HD) may prevent HD-related amyloidosis. Liver transplantation may be an option for patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Several novel specific therapies are under investigation, including small molecule drugs and vaccines. Their efficacy and safety in humans remain to be demonstrated. In the absence of specific cures, symptom-directed therapy assumes a paramount role and can improve quality of life by mitigating diarrhea or pain, for example.
View details for PubMedID 12521568