Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Faculty Affiliate, Stanford Center for Latin American Studies (2005 - Present)
  • Faculty Affiliate, Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (IPER), Stanford University (2007 - Present)
  • Faculty Affiliate, Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University (2009 - Present)
  • Faculty Fellow, Stanford Center for International Development (2005 - Present)
  • Co-Founder, Collaboration for Health System Improvement and Impact Evaluation in India (COHESIVE-India) (2010 - Present)
  • Executive Committee, Stanford Population Center (2011 - Present)
  • Faculty Advisory Board Member, Stanford Journal of Public Health (2011 - Present)
  • Director, Stanford Center for International Development (2014 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Best Student Paper Prize, American Society of Health Economists (ASHE) (2006)
  • Biennial Prize for Distinguished Contribution to Population Scholarship, American Sociological Association Section on Population (2006)
  • Divisional Teaching Award, Department of Medicine, Stanford University (2009)
  • Inter-American Prize for Research on Social Security, Conferencia Interamericana de Seguridad Social (CISS) (2010)
  • Faculty Research Fellow, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) (2005 to 2012)
  • International Research Fellow, Centre for Market and Public Organisation (CMPO), University of Bristol (2010-2012)
  • Divisional Teaching Award, Department of Medicine, Stanford University (2011)
  • Faculty Affiliate, Center for Effective Global Action (CEGA) (2011-present)
  • Member, Urban Services Initiative, Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) (2012-present)
  • Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) (2012-present)
  • Excellence in Refereeing Award, American Economic Review (2013)
  • Research Associate, ESRC Research Centre for Micro-Social Change, Institute for Social and Economic, University of Essex (2013-present)
  • Affiliate, Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) (2014-present)
  • Global Advisory Board, Kolkata Public Health Institute (2015)
  • Faculty Committee, Center for Effective Global Action (CEGA) (2015)
  • Non Resident Fellow, Center for Global Development (2016)

Professional Education

  • Ph.D., Harvard University, Health Policy (Economics Track) (2005)
  • Master of Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (2000)
  • B.A., Yale University, Psychology (Intensive) (1995)


2015-16 Courses

Stanford Advisees


All Publications

  • Intended And Unintended Consequences Of China's Zero Markup Drug Policy HEALTH AFFAIRS Yi, H., Miller, G., Zhang, L., Li, S., Rozelle, S. 2015; 34 (8): 1391-1398


    Since economic liberalization in the late 1970s, China's health care providers have grown heavily reliant on revenue from drugs, which they both prescribe and sell. To curb abuse and to promote the availability, safety, and appropriate use of essential drugs, China introduced its national essential drug list in 2009 and implemented a zero markup policy designed to decouple provider compensation from drug prescription and sales. We collected and analyzed representative data from China's township health centers and their catchment-area populations both before and after the reform. We found large reductions in drug revenue, as intended by policy makers. However, we also found a doubling of inpatient care that appeared to be driven by supply, instead of demand. Thus, the reform had an important unintended consequence: China's health care providers have sought new, potentially inappropriate, forms of revenue.

    View details for DOI 10.1377/hlthaff.2014.1114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000361141000020

    View details for PubMedID 26240254

  • An exploration of China's mortality decline under Mao: A provincial analysis, 1950-80 POPULATION STUDIES-A JOURNAL OF DEMOGRAPHY Babiarz, K. S., Eggleston, K., Miller, G., Zhang, Q. 2015; 69 (1): 39-56


    Between 1950 and 1980, China experienced the most rapid sustained increase in life expectancy of any population in documented global history. We know of no study that has quantitatively assessed the relative importance of the various explanations proposed for this gain in survival. We have created and analysed a new, province-level panel data set spanning the decades between 1950 and 1980 by combining historical information from China's public health archives, official provincial yearbooks, and infant and child mortality records contained in the 1988 National Survey of Fertility and Contraception. Although exploratory, our results suggest that gains in school enrolment and public health campaigns together are associated with 55-70 per cent of China's dramatic reductions in infant and under-5 mortality during our study period. These results underscore the importance of non-medical determinants of population health, and suggest that, in some circumstances, general education of the population may amplify the effectiveness of public health interventions. Supplementary material for this article (Babiarz et al. 2014, Suppl.) is available at:

    View details for DOI 10.1080/00324728.2014.972432

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349446200001

    View details for PubMedID 25495509

  • Family Planning: Program Effects International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Miller, N. G., Babiarz, K. S. 2015
  • Population Policy: Abortion and Modern Contraception are Substitutes Revise and Resubmit Valente, C., Miller, G. 2015
  • Effect of Chiranjeevi Yojana on institutional deliveries and neonatal and maternal outcomes in Gujarat, India: a difference-in-differences analysis BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Mohanan, M., Bauhoff, S., La Forgia, G., Babiarz, K. S., Singh, K., Miller, G. 2014; 92 (3): 187-194


    To evaluate the effect of the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme, a public-private partnership to improve maternal and neonatal health in Gujarat, India.A household survey (n = 5597 households) was conducted in Gujarat to collect retrospective data on births within the preceding 5 years. In an observational study using a difference-in-differences design, the relationship between the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme and the probability of delivery in health-care institutions, the probability of obstetric complications and mean household expenditure for deliveries was subsequently examined. In multivariate regressions, individual and household characteristics as well as district and year fixed effects were controlled for. Data from the most recent District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) wave conducted in Gujarat (n = 6484 households) were used in parallel analyses.Between 2005 and 2010, the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme was not associated with a statistically significant change in the probability of institutional delivery (2.42 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, CI: -5.90 to 10.74) or of birth-related complications (6.16 percentage points; 95% CI: -2.63 to 14.95). Estimates using DLHS-3 data were similar. Analyses of household expenditures indicated that mean household expenditure for private-sector deliveries had either not fallen or had fallen very little under the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme.The Chiranjeevi Yojana programme appears to have had no significant impact on institutional delivery rates or maternal health outcomes. The absence of estimated reductions in household spending for private-sector deliveries deserves further study.

    View details for DOI 10.2471/BLT.13.124644

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333577200013

    View details for PubMedID 24700978

  • Pay-for-Performance Incentives in Low- and Middle-Income Country Health Programs Encyclopedia of Health Economics in Tony Cuyler (ed.) Miller, G., Babiarz, K. S. 2014
  • Learning about New Technologies through Social Networks: Experimental Evidence on Non- Traditional Stoves in Bangladesh Marketing Science Miller, G., Mobaraj, M. 2014; 61 (1)
  • To Promote Adoption of Household Health Technologies, Think Beyond Health American Journal of Public Health Thurber, M., Warner, C., Platt, L., Slaski, A., Gupta, R., Miller, G. 2013; 103 (1): 1736-174 0
  • The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis. American economic journal. Applied economics Bhattacharya, J., Gathmann, C., Miller, G. 2013; 5 (2): 232-260


    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested.

    View details for PubMedID 24224067

  • Gender Differences in Preferences, Intra-Household Externalities, and Low Demand for Improved Cookstoves Revise and Resubmit Mobarak, M., Miller, G. 2013
  • Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor. American economic journal. Applied economics Miller, G., Pinto, D., Vera-Hernández, M. 2013; 5 (4): 61-91


    Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia's Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a "fuzzy" regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services - with measurable health gains.

    View details for DOI 10.1257/app.5.4.61

    View details for PubMedID 25346799

  • HIV Development Assistance and Adult Mortality in Africa JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Bendavid, E., Holmes, C. B., Bhattacharya, J., Miller, G. 2012; 307 (19): 2060-2067


    The effect of global health initiatives on population health is uncertain. Between 2003 and 2008, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the largest initiative ever devoted to a single disease, operated intensively in 12 African focus countries. The initiative's effect on all-cause adult mortality is unknown.To determine whether PEPFAR was associated with relative changes in adult mortality in the countries and districts where it operated most intensively.Using person-level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys, we conducted cross-country and within-country analyses of adult mortality (annual probability of death per 1000 adults between 15 and 59 years old) and PEPFAR's activities. Across countries, we compared adult mortality in 9 African focus countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia) with 18 African nonfocus countries from 1998 to 2008. We performed subnational analyses using information on PEPFAR's programmatic intensity in Tanzania and Rwanda. We employed difference-in-difference analyses with fixed effects for countries and years as well as personal and time-varying area characteristics.Adult all-cause mortality.We analyzed information on 1 538 612 adults, including 60 303 deaths, from 41 surveys in 27 countries, 9 of them focus countries. In 2003, age-adjusted adult mortality was 8.3 per 1000 adults in the focus countries (95% CI, 8.0-8.6) and 8.5 per 1000 adults (95% CI, 8.3-8.7) in the nonfocus countries. In 2008, mortality was 4.1 per 1000 (95% CI, 3.6-4.6) in the focus countries and 6.9 per 1000 (95% CI, 6.3-7.5) in the nonfocus countries. The adjusted odds ratio of mortality among adults living in focus countries compared with nonfocus countries between 2004 and 2008 was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72-0.99; P = .03). Within Tanzania and Rwanda, the adjusted odds ratio of mortality for adults living in districts where PEPFAR operated more intensively was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72-0.97; P = .02) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.56-0.99; P = .04), respectively, compared with districts where it operated less intensively.Between 2004 and 2008, all-cause adult mortality declined more in PEPFAR focus countries relative to nonfocus countries. It was not possible to determine whether PEPFAR was associated with mortality effects separate from reductions in HIV-specific deaths.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304048200025

    View details for PubMedID 22665105

  • The Limits of Health and Nutrition Education: Evidence from Three Randomized Controlled Trials in Rural China CESifo Economic Studies Renfu Luo, Yaojiang Shi, Linxiu Zhang, Huiping Zhang, Grant Miller, Alexis Medina, Scott Rozelle 2012; 58 (2): 385-404
  • Effectiveness of Provider Incentives for Anaemia Reduction in Rura l China: A Cluster Randomised Trial BMJ Miller, G., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Sylvia, S., Shi, Y., Foo, P., Zhao, Q., Martorell, R., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2012; 345
  • PEPFAR and Adult Mortality - Reply JAMA - JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Bendavid, E., Holmes, C., Miller, N. G. 2012; 308 (10): 972-973
  • Low Demand for Nontraditional Cookstove Technologies Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA Miller, G., Mobarak, M., Dwivedi, P., Bailis, R., Hildemann, L. 2012; 109 (27): 10815-10820
  • Impact of China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme on Township Health Centers Health Affairs Babiarz, K. S., Miller, N. G., Hongmei, Y., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2012; 31 (5): 1065-1074
  • Anaemia in Rural China's Elementary Schools: Prevalence and Correlates in Ningxia and Qinghai's Poor Counties Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition Luo, R., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Zhao, Q., Shi, Y., Miller, N. G., Yu, E., Sharbano, B., Medina, A., Rozelle, S., Martorell, R. 2011; 29 (5): 471-485
  • United States Aid Policy and Induced Abortion in Sub-Saharan Africa Bulletin of the World Health Organization Bendavid, E., Avila, P., Miller, G. 2011; 89: 873-880
  • New Evidence on the Impact of China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme and Its Implications for Rural Primary Care BMJ Babiarz, K. S., Miller, N. G., Yi, H., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2010; 341 (c5617)
  • AIDS and Declining Support for Africa’s Dependent Elderly: A Retrospective Analysis Using Demographic and Health Surveys BMJ Kautz, T., Bendavid, E., Bhattacharya, J., Miller, G. 2010; 340 (C2841)
  • Cyclicality, Mortality, and the Value of Time: The Case of Coffee Price Fluctuations and Child Survival in Colombia Journal of Political Economy Miller NG, Urdinola P 2010; 118 (1): 113-155
  • Contraception as Development? New Evidence from Family Planning in Colombia Economic Journal Miller NG 2010; 120 (545): 709-736
  • The U.S. Global Health Initiative: Informing Policy with Evidence [Commentary], Journal of the American Medical Association Bendavid E, Miller NG 2010; 304 (7): 791-792
  • The Relation of Price of Antiretroviral Drugs and Foreign Assistance with Coverage of HIV Treatment in Africa: Retrospective Study BMJ Bendavid, E., Leroux, E., Bhattacharya, J., Miller, N. G. 2010; 341 (c6218)
  • Women's Suffrage, Political Responsiveness, and Child Survival in American History Quarterly Journal of Economics Miller, N. G. 2008; 123 (3): 1287-1327
  • Evidence on Early-Life Income and Late-Life Health from America?s Dust Bowl Era Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA Cutler, D., Miller, NG, Norton D 2007; 104 (33): 13244-13249
  • Water, Water Everywhere: Municipal Finance and Water Supply in American Cities. in Edwards Glaeser and Claudia Goldin (eds.), Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's History Cutler, D., Miller, G. 2006: 153-184
  • The Role of Public Health Improvements in Health Advances: The 20th Century United States Demography Cutler D, Miller NG 2005; 42 (1): 1-22
  • The Impact of Medicaid Managed Care on Community Clinics in Sacramento County, California American Journal of Public Health Korenbrot CC, Miller NG, Greene J 1999; 89 (6): 913-17