Clinical Assistant Professor, Comparative Medicine
Information regarding effective anesthetic regimens for neonatal rat pups is limited. Here we investigated whether isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia maintains physiologic parameters more consistently than does hypothermia anesthesia in neonatal rat pups. Rat pups (age, 4 d) were randomly assigned to receive isoflurane, sevoflurane, or hypothermia. Physiologic parameters monitored at 1, 5, 10, and 15 min included heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and oxygen saturation (%SpO2). Other parameters evaluated were loss and return of righting reflex, paw withdrawal reflex, and maternal acceptance. Corticosterone and glucose were sampled at 20 min and 24 h after anesthesia induction. Once a surgical plane of anesthesia was achieved, a skin incision was made on the right lateral thigh. After the procedure, all pups were accepted and cared for by their dam. Isoflurane- and sevoflurane-treated pups maintained higher HR, RR, %SpO2, and glucose levels than did hypothermia-treated pups. For both the isoflurane and sevoflurane groups, HR and RR were significantly lower at 10 and 15 min after anesthesia than at 1 min. Compared with hypothermia, isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia provided shorter times to loss of and return of the righting reflex. Although corticosterone did not differ among the groups, glucose levels were higher at 20 min after anesthesia induction than at 24 h in all anesthetic groups. We conclude that both isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia maintain physiologic parameters (HR, RR, %SpO2) more consistently than does hypothermia anesthesia in 4-d-old rat pups.
View details for Web of Science ID 000369043700015
View details for PubMedID 26817984
Cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of mortality in aging squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). However, data regarding echocardiographic measures obtained from clinically healthy nonsedated squirrel monkeys have not been published, and few electrocardiographic data are available. Here we obtained echocardiographs without sedation and electrocardiographs with minimal sedation from 63 clinically healthy squirrel monkeys that ranged from 3 to 20 y in age. 2D and M-mode echocardiography were performed on nonsedated monkeys to determine the left ventricular internal diameters at systole and diastole and the ejection fraction. Electrocardiography was performed under sedation with ketamine (15 mg/kg). Parameters evaluated included heart rate; P-wave duration; lengths of the PR, QRS, and QT intervals; R-wave amplitude, and P-wave amplitude. Initial physical examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography indicated normal cardiac function for all monkeys. The objectives of this study were to provide reference values for nonsedated echocardiography and ketamine-sedated electrocardiography of clinically normal squirrel monkeys and to determine correlates of age and sex in these values.
View details for Web of Science ID 000349577700005
The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been identified as a major cause of the recent worldwide amphibian decline. Numerous species in North America alone are under threat or have succumbed to Bd-driven population extinctions. The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) has been reported as a tolerant carrier of Bd. In this report, we used a qPCR assay to test 120 archived American bullfrog specimens collected between 1924 and 2007 in California, USA and Baja California, Mexico. The overall prevalence of Bd infection in this archived population of L. catesbeianus was 19.2%. The earliest positive specimen was collected in Sacramento County, California, USA in 1928 and is to date the earliest positive archived Bd specimen reported globally. These data demonstrate that Bd-infected wild amphibians have been present in California longer than previously known.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10393-013-0895-6
View details for Web of Science ID 000332375100003
View details for PubMedID 24419668