Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Psychiatry

Academic Appointments


  • Clinical Assistant Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Professional Education


  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine (2009) CA
  • Medical Education:University Of Illinois (2005) IL
  • Board Certification: Psychiatry, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (2012)

Publications

All Publications


  • Comparison of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression among Older Versus Younger Veterans: Results of a National Evaluation. journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences Karlin, B. E., Trockel, M., Brown, G. K., Gordienko, M., Yesavage, J., Taylor, C. B. 2015; 70 (1): 3-12

    Abstract

    The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D) among older adults in routine clinical settings has received limited attention. The current article examines and compares outcomes of older versus younger veterans receiving CBT-D nationally.Patient outcomes were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Therapeutic alliance was assessed using the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised.A total of 764 veterans aged 18-64 and 100 veterans aged 65+ received CBT-D; 68.0% of older and 68.3% of younger patients completed all sessions or finished early due to symptom relief, and mean depression scores declined from 27.0 (standard deviation [SD] = 10.7) to 16.2 (SD = 12.4) in the older group and from 29.1 (SD = 11.2) to 17.8 (SD = 13.5) in the younger group. Within-group effect sizes were d = 1.01 for both groups. Significant increases in quality of life and therapeutic alliance were observed for both groups.CBT-D resulted in significant improvements in depression and quality of life among older patients. Outcomes and rate of attrition were equivalent to younger patients. Findings indicate that CBT-D is an effective and acceptable treatment for older veterans in real-world settings with often high levels of depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/geronb/gbt096

    View details for PubMedID 24218096

  • Moderators and mediators of outcome in Internet-based indicated prevention for eating disorders BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Voelker, U., Jacobi, C., Trockel, M. T., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 63: 114-121
  • Internet-based preventive intervention for reducing eating disorder risk: A randomized controlled trial comparing guided with unguided self-help BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Kass, A. E., Trockel, M., Safer, D. L., Sinton, M. M., Cunning, D., Rizk, M. T., Genkin, B. H., Weisman, H. L., Bailey, J. O., Jacobi, C., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 63: 90-98
  • Psychiatric co-morbidity in women presenting across the continuum of disordered eating EATING BEHAVIORS Aspen, V., Weisman, H., Vannucci, A., Nafiz, N., Gredysa, D., Kass, A. E., Trockel, M., Jacobi, C., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 15 (4): 686-693
  • A Population-Wide Screening and Tailored Intervention Platform for Eating Disorders on College Campuses: The Healthy Body Image Program JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH Jones, M., Kass, A. E., Trockel, M., Glass, A. I., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 62 (5): 351-356

    Abstract

    Abstract Objectives: This article presents a new approach to intervention for eating disorders and body image concerns on college campuses, using a model of integrated eating disorder screening and intervention. Formative data on implementation feasibility are presented. Participants: College students enrolled at 2 universities between 2011 and 2012. Methods: The Healthy Body Image program is an evidence-based screening and intervention platform, enacted via community and online resources. An online screen was used to identify students at varying levels of risk or eating disorder symptom status; responses were used to direct students to universal or targeted online interventions or further evaluation. Universal prevention programs to improve healthy weight regulation and body image culture were offered to all students. Results: Formative data from 1,551 students illustrates the application of this model. Conclusions: The Healthy Body Image program is feasible to deliver and provides a comprehensive system of screening, evidence-based intervention, and community culture change.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337571600008

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia with veterans: Evaluation of effectiveness and correlates of treatment outcomes BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Trockel, M., Karlin, B. E., Taylor, C. B., Manber, R. 2014; 53: 41-46

    Abstract

    This paper examines the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in Veterans and the effects of two process measures on CBT-I outcomes: 1) therapist ratings of patient adherence and 2) patient ratings of therapeutic alliance. Data are from 316 therapists in the Department of Veterans Affairs CBT-I Training Program and 696 patients receiving CBT-I from therapists undergoing training. Mixed effects model results indicate Insomnia Severity Index scores decreased from 20.7 at baseline to 10.9 (d = 2.3) during a typical course of CBT-I. Patients with highest tercile compared to those with lowest tercile adherence achieved, on average, 4.1 points greater reduction in ISI scores (d = 0.95). The effect of therapeutic alliance on change in insomnia severity was not significant after adjusting for adherence to CBT-I. These results support the effectiveness and feasibility of large-scale training in and implementation of CBT-I and indicate that greater focus on patient adherence may lead to enhanced outcomes. The current findings suggest that CBT-I therapists and training programs place greater emphasis on attending to and increasing patient adherence.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2013.11.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331680500005

  • Validation of a Six-Item Male Body Image Concerns Scale (MBICS). Eating disorders Weisman, H. L., Patten, E., Montanez-Leaks, M., Yee, M., Darcy, A. M., Mazina, V., Zhang, A., Bailey, J. O., Jones, M., Trockel, M., Barr Taylor, C. 2014; 22 (5): 420-434

    Abstract

    Elevated body image concerns may be a risk factor for eating disorders among males and contribute to a range of other mental health problems. This study tested a 6-item measure of general male body image concerns in two studies with adolescent males ages 14-18 (total N = 122). The measure showed strong convergent validity, scale score reliability, and test-retest reliability, and was significantly correlated with the number of episodes of binge eating in the past month. A short scale will relieve participant burden and provide a useful research tool for studies with males at risk for or with eating disorders.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10640266.2014.925768

    View details for PubMedID 24964387

  • An Internet-based positive psychology program: Strategies to improve effectiveness and engagement JOURNAL OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Redzic, N. M., Taylor, K., Chang, V., Trockel, M., Shorter, A., Taylor, C. B. 2014; 9 (6): 494-501
  • National Dissemination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Veterans: Therapist- and Patient-Level Outcomes JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Karlin, B. E., Trockel, M., Taylor, C. B., Gimeno, J., Manber, R. 2013; 81 (5): 912-917

    Abstract

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of national training in and implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system on clinicians' competency and patients' insomnia severity, symptoms of depression, and quality of life. Method: A prospective cohort of 102 VA clinicians (including mental health staff in various mental health and primary care settings) participated in the VA CBT-I Training Program during 2011 and 2012. Patients included 182 veterans treated by clinicians enrolled in the training. Clinicians were rated on taped therapy sessions, using a standardized competency rating form. Patients' symptoms were assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and standardized measures of depression and quality of life. Results: Of 102 clinicians attending workshop training, 94 (92%) met all training requirements, including minimum competency score criteria. Of 182 patients, 122 (67%) completed treatment. The mixed effects model revealed significant reductions in average patient ISI score (from 19.9 to 10.2, standard error = 3.0). Patients also improved on measures of depression and quality of life. Conclusion: National training in and implementation of CBT-I resulted in a significant increase in therapist competency to deliver CBT-I for almost all clinicians and in a large reduction in insomnia severity and improvement in depression and quality of life among veterans. Observed effect sizes are comparable to results of randomized clinical trials. These results suggest CBT-I can be feasibly and effectively disseminated to routine clinical settings, with very favorable patient outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0032554

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324780500017

  • Training in and implementation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depression in the Veterans Health Administration: Therapist and patient outcomes BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Walser, R. D., Karlin, B. E., Trockel, M., Mazina, B., Taylor, C. B. 2013; 51 (9): 555-563
  • Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy for depression: Comparison among older and younger veterans AGING & MENTAL HEALTH Karlin, B. E., Walser, R. D., Yesavage, J., Zhang, A., Trockel, M., Taylor, C. B. 2013; 17 (5): 555-563

    Abstract

    Limited data exist on outcomes of older adults receiving psychotherapy for depression in real-world settings. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depression (ACT-D) offers potential utility for older individuals who may experience issues of loss, reduced control, and other life changes. The present article examines and compares outcomes of older and younger Veterans receiving ACT-D nationally in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health care system.Patient outcomes were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Therapeutic alliance was assessed using the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised.Six hundred fifty-five Veterans aged 18-64 and 76 Veterans aged 65+ received ACT-D. Seventy-eight percent of older and 67% of younger patients completed all sessions or finished early. Mean depression scores declined from 28.4 (SD = 11.4) to 17.5 (SD = 12.0) in the older group and 30.3 (SD = 10.6) to 19.1 (SD = 14.3) in the younger group. Within-group effect sizes were d = .95 and d = 1.06 for the two age groups, respectively. Quality of life and therapeutic alliance also increased during treatment.The findings suggest that ACT-D is an effective and acceptable treatment for older Veterans treated in routine clinical settings, including those with high levels of depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/13607863.2013.789002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320913300005

    View details for PubMedID 23607328

  • Motivation and Changes in Depression COGNITIVE THERAPY AND RESEARCH Burns, D., Westra, H., Trockel, M., Fisher, A. 2013; 37 (2): 368-379
  • What constitutes clinically significant binge eating? Association between binge features and clinical validators in college-age women INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Vannucci, A., Theim, K. R., Kass, A. E., Trockel, M., Genkin, B., Rizk, M., Weisman, H., Bailey, J. O., Sinton, M. M., Aspen, V., Wilfley, D. E., Taylor, C. B. 2013; 46 (3): 226-232

    Abstract

    To investigate the association between binge features and clinical validators.The Eating Disorder Examination assessed binge features in a sample of 549 college-age women: loss of control (LOC) presence, binge frequency, binge size, indicators of impaired control, and LOC severity. Clinical validators were self-reported clinical impairment and current psychiatric comorbidity, as determined via a semistructured interview.Compared with women without LOC, those with LOC had significantly greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and comorbidity (ps < 0.001). Among women with LOC (n = 252), the indicators of impaired control and LOC severity, but not binge size or frequency, were associated with greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and/or comorbidity (ps < 0.05). DICUSSION: Findings confirm that the presence of LOC may be the hallmark feature of binge eating. Further, dimensional ratings about the LOC experience--and possibly the indicators of impaired control--may improve reliable identification of clinically significant binge eating.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22115

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316216100004

    View details for PubMedID 23386591

  • National Dissemination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System: Therapist and Patient-Level Outcomes JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Karlin, B. E., Brown, G. K., Trockel, M., Cunning, D., Zeiss, A. M., Taylor, C. B. 2012; 80 (5): 707-718

    Abstract

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system is nationally disseminating and implementing cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D). The current article evaluates therapist and patient-level outcomes associated with national training in and implementation of CBT-D in the VA health care system.Therapist competencies were assessed with the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS). Patient outcomes were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Therapeutic alliance was assessed with the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised. Two-hundred twenty-one therapists have received training, and 356 veteran patients have received treatment through the VA CBT-D Training Program.Of therapists who have participated in the program, 182 (82%) completed all training requirements and achieved competency, reflected by a score of 40 on the CTRS. Of 356 patients, nearly 70% completed 10 or more sessions or improved sufficiently to stop therapy before the 10th session. Mean depression scores decreased by approximately 40% from initial to later treatment phase. Effect sizes of changes ranged from d = 0.39 to d = 0.74 for quality of life and from d = 0.47 to d = 0.66 for therapeutic alliance measures.National training in and implementation of CBT-D within the VA health care system is associated with significant, positive therapist training outcomes, as evidenced by increases in CBT core competencies. The implementation of the protocol by newly trained CBT-D therapists is associated with significantly improved patient outcomes, as evidenced by large decreases in depression and improvements in quality of life.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0029328

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309312400001

    View details for PubMedID 22823859

  • Effects of an Internet-based intervention for subthreshold eating disorders: A randomized controlled trial Jacobi, C., Voelker, U., Trockel, M. T., Taylor, C. B. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2012: 93-99

    Abstract

    Women reporting initial eating disorder (ED) symptoms are at highest risk for the development of an eating disorder. Preventive interventions should, therefore, be specifically tailored for this subgroup.To adapt and evaluate the effects of the Internet-based prevention program "Student Bodies™" for women with symptoms of disordered eating and/or subthreshold eating disorder (ED) syndromes.126 women, reporting subthreshold ED symptoms (high weight and shape concerns and below threshold bingeing, purging, chronic dieting or several of these symptoms) were randomly assigned to a Student Bodies™+ (SB+) intervention or a wait-list control group and assessed at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. "Student Bodies™" was adapted to be suitable for subthreshold EDs. Main outcome measures were attitudes and symptoms of disordered eating. Pre-follow-up data were analyzed by ANCOVAS with mixed effects.At 6-month follow-up, compared to participants in the control group, participants in the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements on ED-related attitudes. Intervention participants also showed 67% (95% CI = 20-87%) greater reductions in combined rates of subjective and objective binges, and 86% (95% CI = 63-95%) greater reduction in purging episodes. Also, the rates of participants abstinent from all symptoms of disordered eating (restrictive eating, binge eating and any compensatory behavior) were significantly higher in the intervention group (45.1% vs. 26.9%). Post-hoc subgroup analyses revealed that for participants with binge eating the effect on EDE-Q scores was larger than in the pure restricting subgroup.The adapted "SB+" program represents an effective intervention for women with subthreshold EDs of the binge eating subtype.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2011.09.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301019200002

  • Depressive symptom dimensions and cardiac prognosis following myocardial infarction: results from the ENRICHD clinical trial PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE Bekke-Hansen, S., Trockel, M., Burg, M. M., Taylor, C. B. 2012; 42 (1): 51-60

    Abstract

    Depression following myocardial infarction (MI) independently increases risk for early cardiac morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest that somatic, but not cognitive, depressive symptoms are responsible for the increased risk. However, the effects of somatic depressive symptoms at follow-up, after sufficient time has elapsed to allow for physical recovery from the initial infarction, are not known. Our aim was to examine the relationship between cognitive and somatic depressive symptom dimensions at baseline and 12 months post-MI and subsequent mortality and cardiovascular morbidity.Patients were 2442 depressed and/or socially isolated men and women with acute MI included in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial. We used principal components analysis (PCA) of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) items to derive subscales measuring cognitive and somatic depressive symptom dimensions, and Cox regression with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing to examine the contribution of these dimensions to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and first recurrent non-fatal MI.After adjusting for medical co-morbidity and Bonferroni correction, the somatic depressive symptom dimension assessed proximately following MI did not significantly predict any endpoints. At 12 months post-MI, however, this dimension independently predicted subsequent all-cause [hazard ratio (HR) 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.81] and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.17-2.18). No significant associations were found between the cognitive depressive symptom dimension and any endpoints after Bonferroni correction.Somatic symptoms of depression at 12 months post-MI in patients at increased psychosocial risk predicted subsequent mortality. Psychosocial interventions aimed at improving cardiac prognosis may be enhanced by targeting somatic depressive symptoms, with particular attention to somatic symptom severity at 12 months post-MI.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0033291711001000

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298961600005

    View details for PubMedID 21682949

  • Dissemination of CBTI to the Non-Sleep Specialist: Protocol Development and Training Issues JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SLEEP MEDICINE Manber, R., Carney, C., Edinger, J., Epstein, D., Friedman, L., Haynes, P. L., Karlin, B. E., Pigeon, W., Siebern, A. T., Trockel, M. 2012; 8 (2): 209-218

    Abstract

    Strong evidence supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI). A significant barrier to wide dissemination of CBTI is the lack of qualified practitioners. We describe challenges and decisions made when developing a CBTI dissemination program in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The program targets mental health clinicians from different disciplines (psychiatry, psychology, social work, and nursing) with varying familiarity and experience with general principles of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT). We explain the scope of training (how much to teach about the science of sleep, comorbid sleep disorders, other medical and mental health comorbidities, and hypnotic-dependent insomnia), discuss adaptation of CBTI to address the unique challenges posed by comorbid insomnia, and describe decisions made about the strategy of training (principles, structure and materials developed/recommended). Among these decisions is the question of how to balance the structure and flexibility of the treatment protocol. We developed a case conceptualization-driven approach and provide a general session-by-session outline. Training licensed therapists who already have many professional obligations required that the training be completed in a relatively short time with minimal disruptions to training participants' routine work responsibilities. These "real-life" constraints shaped the development of this competency-based, yet pragmatic training program. We conclude with a description of preliminary lessons learned from the initial wave of training and propose future directions for research and dissemination.

    View details for DOI 10.5664/jcsm.1786

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302862200017

    View details for PubMedID 22505869

  • An e-mail delivered CBT for sleep-health program for college students: effects on sleep quality and depression symptoms. Journal of clinical sleep medicine Trockel, M., Manber, R., Chang, V., Thurston, A., Taylor, C. B. 2011; 7 (3): 276-281

    Abstract

    We examined the effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program (Refresh) to improve sleep, on sleep quality and symptoms of depression among first-year college students.Students in one residence hall (n = 48) participated in Refresh and students in another residence hall (n = 53) participated in a program of equal length (Breathe) designed to improve mood and increase resilience to stress. Both programs were delivered by e-mail in 8 weekly PDF files. Of these, 19 Refresh program participants and 15 Breathe program participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline (scores ? 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]). Participants completed the PSQI and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and post-intervention.Among students with poor sleep (PSQI > 5) at baseline, participation in Refresh was associated with greater improvements in sleep quality and greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in Breathe. Among students with high sleep quality at baseline there was no difference in baseline to post-intervention changes in sleep (PSQI) or depressive symptom severity (CES-D).A cognitive behavioral sleep improvement program delivered by e-mail may be a cost effective way for students with poor sleep quality to improve their sleep and reduce depressive symptoms. An important remaining question is whether improving sleep will also reduce risk for future depression.

    View details for DOI 10.5664/JCSM.1072

    View details for PubMedID 21677898

  • An E-mail Delivered CBT for Sleep-Health Program for College Students: Effects on Sleep Quality and Depression Symptoms JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SLEEP MEDICINE Trockel, M., Manber, R., Chang, V., Thurston, A., Taylor, C. B. 2011; 7 (3): 273-278

    View details for DOI 10.5664/JCSM.1072

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292923600024

  • Binge Drinking in Women at Risk for Developing Eating Disorders INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Khaylis, A., Trockel, M., Taylor, C. B. 2009; 42 (5): 409-414

    Abstract

    To determine binge drinking rates in college-age women at risk for eating disorders and to examine factors related to binge drinking over time.Participants were 480 college-age women who were at high risk for developing an eating disorder (ED) and who had a body mass index (BMI) between 18 and 32. Participants were assessed annually for 4 years.Participants reported high rates of binge drinking and frequent binge drinking throughout college. Binge drinking was positively correlated with dietary restraint, coping using substances, coping using denial, and life events.The study's findings suggest that binge drinking is highly prevalent in women at high risk for developing eating disorders. Results also indicated that binge drinking was related to dieting and maladaptive coping patterns. Intervention for women with strong weight and shape concerns should also address problematic alcohol use.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267299100005

    View details for PubMedID 19115362

  • Smoking Behavior Postmvocardial Infarction Among ENRICHD Trial Participants: Cognitive Behavior Therapy Intervention for Depression and Low Perceived Social Support Compared With Care as Usual PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Trockel, M., Burg, M., Jaffe, A., Barbour, K., Taylor, C. B. 2008; 70 (8): 875-882

    Abstract

    Patients with cardiovascular disease who stop smoking lower their risk of subsequent morbidity and mortality. However, patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction (MI) are more likely to be depressed than the general population, which may make smoking cessation more difficult. Poor social support may also make smoking cessation more difficult for some patients. This study examines the effect of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression, low perceived social support or both on smoking behavior in post-MI patients.Participants were 1233 patients with a history of smoking enrolled in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients (ENRICHD) trial who provided 7-day point-prevalence smoking behavior information at baseline and at two or more follow-up assessments. The ENRICHD trial enrolled post-MI patients with depression, low perceived social support or both. Participants were randomly assigned to either CBT intervention or usual care. We used mixed effects models to accommodate data from multiple smoking point-prevalence measures for each individual participant.CBT did not significantly reduce post-MI smoking across all intervention patients with a history of smoking. However, CBT did reduce post-MI smoking among the subgroup of depressed patients with adequate perceived social support (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98).CBT for depression without more specific attention to smoking cessation may have little overall value as a strategy for helping post-MI patients refrain from smoking. However, use of CBT to treat depression may have the gratuitous benefit of reducing smoking among some post-MI patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181842897

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260401100006

    View details for PubMedID 18842753

  • When the party for some becomes a problem for others: The effect of perceived secondhand consequences of drinking behavior on drinking norms JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Trockel, M., Wall, A., Williams, S. S., Reis, J. 2008; 142 (1): 57-69

    Abstract

    The authors examined the influence of fraternity men's expectancies regarding secondhand consequences of excessive drinking behavior on normative standards regarding alcohol use and consumption levels. Participants were 381 men from 26 chapters of 2 national fraternities. One organization participated in a brief intervention involving discussion of secondhand consequences of excessive drinking. Immediate influence of the intervention on perceived secondhand consequences of alcohol use was assessed using a posttest-only, randomized groups design. Results supported a hypothesized measurement model with 1 overall secondhand consequence expectancy construct and 4 subfactors: (a) Noise Disruptive of Sleep and Study, (b) Violence, (c) Sexual Assault, and (d) Property Damage. Cross-sectional analysis at the chapter and individual levels demonstrated that secondhand expectancies had an indirect effect on alcohol consumption, mediated by personal consumption standards for limiting alcohol consumption. The intervention had an effect on secondhand expectancies. Findings suggest that interventions with intact groups can increase secondhand expectancies regarding excessive drinking and may lead to a reduction in excessive alcohol consumption.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253432400004

    View details for PubMedID 18350844

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