Unassembled CD147 is an endogenous endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation substrate
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL
2012; 23 (24): 4668-4678
Fibrillar Structure and Charge Determine the Interaction of Polyglutamine Protein Aggregates with the Cell Surface
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2012; 287 (35): 29722-29728
Degradation of folding- or assembly-defective proteins by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) ubiquitin ligase, Hrd1, is facilitated by a process that involves recognition of demannosylated N-glycans by the lectin OS-9/XTP3-B via the adaptor protein SEL1L. Most of our knowledge of the machinery that commits proteins to this fate in metazoans comes from studies of overexpressed mutant proteins in heterologous cells. In this study, we used mass spectrometry to identify core-glycoslyated CD147 (CD147(CG)) as an endogenous substrate of the ERAD system that accumulates in a complex with OS-9 following SEL1L depletion. CD147 is an obligatory assembly factor for monocarboxylate transporters. The majority of newly synthesized endogenous CD147(CG) was degraded by the proteasome in a Hrd1-dependent manner. CD147(CG) turnover was blocked by kifunensine, and interaction of OS-9 and XTP3-B with CD147(CG) was inhibited by mutations to conserved residues in their lectin domains. These data establish unassembled CD147(CG) as an endogenous, constitutive ERAD substrate of the OS-9/SEL1L/Hrd1 pathway.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E12-06-0428
View details for Web of Science ID 000314405100002
View details for PubMedID 23097496
RNF170 Protein, an Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Ubiquitin Ligase, Mediates Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Ubiquitination and Degradation
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2011; 286 (27): 24426-24433
The pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative diseases, including transmissible diseases like prion encephalopathy, inherited disorders like Huntington disease, and sporadic diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, is intimately linked to the formation of fibrillar protein aggregates. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that prion-like intercellular transmission of protein aggregates can contribute to the stereotypical spread of disease pathology within the brain, but the mechanisms underlying the binding and uptake of protein aggregates by mammalian cells are largely uninvestigated. We have investigated the properties of polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregates that endow them with the ability to bind to mammalian cells in culture and the properties of the cell surface that facilitate such uptake. Binding and internalization of polyQ aggregates are common features of mammalian cells and depend upon both trypsin-sensitive and trypsin-resistant saturable sites on the cell surface, suggesting the involvement of cell surface proteins in this process. polyQ aggregate binding depends upon the presence of a fibrillar amyloid-like structure and does not depend upon electrostatic interaction of fibrils with the cell surface. Sequences in the huntingtin protein that flank the amyloid-forming polyQ tract also influence the extent to which aggregates are able to bind to cell surfaces.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M112.372474
View details for Web of Science ID 000308286900048
View details for PubMedID 22753412
SPFH1 and SPFH2 mediate the ubiquitination and degradation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in muscarinic receptor-expressing HeLa cells
BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH
2009; 1793 (11): 1710-1718
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors are endoplasmic reticulum membrane calcium channels that, upon activation, are degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. While searching for novel mediators of IP(3) receptor processing, we discovered that RNF170, an uncharacterized RING domain-containing protein, associates rapidly with activated IP(3) receptors. RNF170 is predicted to have three membrane-spanning helices, is localized to the ER membrane, and possesses ubiquitin ligase activity. Depletion of endogenous RNF170 by RNA interference inhibited stimulus-induced IP(3) receptor ubiquitination, and degradation and overexpression of a catalytically inactive RNF170 mutant suppressed stimulus-induced IP(3) receptor processing. A substantial proportion of RNF170 is constitutively associated with the erlin1/2 (SPFH1/2) complex, which has been shown previously to bind to IP(3) receptors immediately after their activation. Depletion of RNF170 did not affect the binding of the erlin1/2 complex to stimulated IP(3) receptors, whereas erlin1/2 complex depletion inhibited RNF170 binding. These results suggest a model in which the erlin1/2 complex recruits RNF170 to activated IP(3) receptors where it mediates IP(3) receptor ubiquitination. Thus, RNF170 plays an essential role in IP(3) receptor processing via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M111.251983
View details for Web of Science ID 000292294900082
View details for PubMedID 21610068
When worlds collide: IP3 receptors and the ERAD pathway
2009; 46 (3): 147-153
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane calcium channels that, upon activation, become substrates for the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. While it is clear that IP(3) receptors are polyubiquitinated and are transferred to the proteasome by a p97-based complex, currently very little is known about the proteins that initially select activated IP(3) receptors for ERAD. Here, we have transfected HeLa cells to stably express m3 muscarinic receptors to allow for the study of IP(3) receptor ERAD in this cell type, and show that IP(3) receptors are polyubiquitinated and then degraded by the proteasome in response to carbachol, a muscarinic agonist. In seeking to identify proteins that mediate IP(3) receptor ERAD we found that both SPFH1 and SPFH2 (also known as erlin 1 and erlin 2), which exist as a hetero-oligomeric complex, rapidly associate with IP(3) receptors in a manner that precedes polyubiquitination and the association of p97. Suppression of SPFH1 and SPFH2 expression by RNA interference markedly inhibited carbachol-induced IP(3) receptor polyubiquitination and degradation, but did not affect carbachol-induced calcium mobilization or IkappaBalpha processing, indicating that the SPFH1/2 complex is a key player in IP(3) receptor ERAD, acting at a step after IP(3) receptor activation, but prior to IP(3) receptor polyubiquitination. Suppression of SPFH1 and SPFH2 expression had only slight effects on the turnover of some exogenous model ERAD substrates, and had no effect on sterol-induced ERAD of endogenous 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Overall, these studies show that m3 receptor-expressing HeLa cells are a valuable system for studying IP(3) receptor ERAD, and suggest that the SPFH1/2 complex is a factor that selectively mediates the ERAD of activated IP(3) receptors.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2009.09.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000271552500009
View details for PubMedID 19751772
An Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Membrane Complex Composed of SPFH1 and SPFH2 Mediates the ER-associated Degradation of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2009; 284 (16): 10433-10445
While cell signaling devotees tend to think of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a Ca(2+) store, those who study protein synthesis tend to see it more as site for protein maturation, or even degradation when proteins do not fold properly. These two worldviews collide when inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors are activated, since in addition to acting as release channels for stored ER Ca(2+), IP(3) receptors are rapidly destroyed via the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, a ubiquitination- and proteasome-dependent mechanism that clears the ER of aberrant proteins. Here we review recent studies showing that activated IP(3) receptors are ubiquitinated in an unexpectedly complex manner, and that a novel complex composed of the ER membrane proteins SPFH1 and SPFH2 (erlin 1 and 2) binds to IP(3) receptors immediately after they are activated and mediates their ERAD. Remarkably, it seems that the conformational changes that underpin channel opening make IP(3) receptors resemble aberrant proteins, which triggers their binding to the SPFH1/2 complex, their ubiquitination and extraction from the ER membrane and finally, their degradation by the proteasome. This degradation of activated IP(3) receptors by the ERAD pathway serves to reduce the sensitivity of ER Ca(2+) stores to IP(3) and may protect cells against deleterious effects of over-activation of Ca(2+) signaling pathways.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ceca.2009.05.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000270256000001
View details for PubMedID 19709743
SPFH2 mediates the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors and other substrates in mammalian cells
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2007; 282 (28): 20104-20115
How endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins that are substrates for the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway are recognized for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation is largely unresolved. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) form tetrameric calcium channels in ER membranes, whose primary role is to control the release of ER calcium stores, but whose levels are also regulated, in an activation-dependent manner, by the ERAD pathway. Here we report that the ER membrane protein SPFH1 and its homolog SPFH2 form a heteromeric approximately 2 MDa complex that binds to IP(3)R tetramers immediately after their activation and is required for their processing. The complex is ring-shaped (diameter approximately 250A(),) and RNA interference-mediated depletion of SPFH1 and SPFH2 blocks IP(3)R polyubiquitination and degradation. We propose that this novel SPFH1/2 complex is a recognition factor that targets IP(3)Rs and perhaps other substrates for ERAD.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M809801200
View details for Web of Science ID 000265104600017
View details for PubMedID 19240031
Involvement of the p97-Ufd1-Npl4 complex in the regulated endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2005; 280 (41): 34530-34537
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane calcium channels that, upon activation, become substrates for the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Although it is clear that IP(3) receptors are polyubiquitinated upon activation and are transferred to the proteasome by a p97-based complex, currently nothing is known about the proteins that initially select activated IP(3) receptors for ERAD. Here, we sought to identify novel proteins that associate with and mediate the ERAD of endogenous activated IP(3) receptors. SPFH2, an uncharacterized SPFH domain-containing protein, rapidly associated with IP(3) receptors in a manner that preceded significant polyubiquitination and the association of p97 and related proteins. SPFH2 was found to be an ER membrane protein largely residing within the ER lumen and in resting and stimulated cells was linked to ERAD pathway components, apparently via endogenous substrates undergoing degradation. Suppression of SPFH2 expression by RNA interference markedly inhibited IP(3) receptor polyubiquitination and degradation and the processing of other ERAD substrates. Overall, these studies identify SPFH2 as a key ERAD pathway component and suggest that it may act as a substrate recognition factor.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M701862200
View details for Web of Science ID 000247819300011
View details for PubMedID 17502376
Spatio-temporal organization of DNA replication in murine embryonic stem, primary, and immortalized cells
JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY
2005; 95 (1): 74-82
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors form tetrameric, IP(3)-gated channels in endoplasmic reticulum membranes that govern the release of Ca(2+) from this organelle. In response to activation of certain G protein-coupled receptors that persistently elevate IP(3) concentration, IP(3) receptors are ubiquitinated and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. IP(3) receptor ubiquitination is mediated by the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, (mam)Ubc7, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. However, the mechanism by which ubiquitinated IP(3) receptors are transferred to the proteasome is not known. Here, we examine this process and show in several mammalian cell types that the ATPase p97 associates with IP(3) receptors in response to hormonal stimuli that induce IP(3) receptor ubiquitination. To examine the functional relevance of the p97 interaction with IP(3) receptors, we stably and specifically reduced p97 protein levels by 62 +/- 3% in Rat-1 fibroblasts using RNA interference. In these cells, endothelin-1-induced IP(3) receptor degradation was markedly retarded and the accumulation of ubiquitinated IP(3) receptors was markedly enhanced. These effects were reversed by expression of exogenous p97. In addition, Ufd1 and Npl4, which complex with p97, also associated with IP(3) receptors upon hormonal stimulation. We conclude that the p97-Ufd1-Npl4 complex couples ubiquitinated IP(3) receptors to proteasomal degradation and, thus, plays a key role in IP(3) receptor processing. These data also establish that the p97-Ufd1-Npl4 complex mediates endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation in mammalian cells.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M508890200
View details for Web of Science ID 000232403900021
View details for PubMedID 16103111
The extent to which chromosomal domains are reorganized within the nucleus during differentiation is central to our understanding of how cells become committed to specific developmental lineages. Spatio-temporal patterns of DNA replication are a reflection of this organization. Here, we demonstrate that the temporal order and relative duration of these replication patterns during S-phase are similar in murine pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells, primary adult myoblasts, and an immortalized fibroblast line. The observed patterns were independent of fixation and denaturation techniques. Importantly, the same patterns were detected when fluorescent nucleotides were introduced into living cells, demonstrating their physiological relevance. These data suggest that heritable gene silencing during commitment to specific cell lineages is not mediated by global changes in the sub-nuclear organization and replication timing of chromosome domains.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jcb.20395
View details for Web of Science ID 000228744000008
View details for PubMedID 15723284