Master of Science, University of Oxford (2007)
Doctor of Philosophy, Universitat Zurich (2012)
To investigate physicians' knowledge including chronic hepatitis B (CHB) diagnosis, screening, and management in various stages of their training.A voluntary 20-question survey was administered in Santa Clara County, CA where Asian and Pacific Islanders (API) account for a third of the population. Among the 219 physician participants, there were 63 interns, 60 second-year residents, 26 chief residents and 70 attending physicians. The survey asked questions regarding respondents' demographics, general hepatitis B virus knowledge questions (i.e., transmission, prevalence, diagnostic testing, prevention, and treatment options), as well as, self-reported practice behavior and confidence in knowledge.Knowledge about screening and managing patients with CHB was poor: only 24% identified the correct tests to screen for CHB, 13% knew the next steps for patients testing positive for CHB, 18% knew the high prevalence rate among API, and 31% knew how to screen for liver cancer. Wald chi-square analysis determined the effect of training level on knowledge; in all cases except for knowledge of liver cancer screening (P = 0.0032), knowledge did not significantly increase with length in residency training or completion of residency.Even in a high-risk region, both medical school and residency training have not adequately prepared physicians in the screening and management of CHB.
View details for DOI 10.3748/wjg.v21.i22.6914
View details for PubMedID 26078568
View details for DOI 10.2147/GICTT.S44256
The apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is expressed abundantly in the ileum and mediates bile acid absorption across the apical membranes. Caudal-type homeobox proteins CDX1 and CDX2 are transcription factors that regulate genes involved in intestinal epithelial differentiation and proliferation. Aberrant expression of both ASBT and CDXs in Barrett's esophagus (BE) prompted us to study, whether the expression of the ASBT gene is regulated by CDXs. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CDXs resulted in reduced ASBT mRNA expression in intestinal cells. CDXs strongly induced the activity of the ASBT promoter in reporter assays in esophageal and intestinal cells. Nine CDX binding sites were predicted in silico within the ASBT promoter, and binding of CDXs to six of them was verified in vitro and within living cells by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, respectively. RNAs were extracted from esophageal biopsies from 20 BE patients and analyzed by real-time PCR. Correlation with ASBT expression was found for CDX1, CDX2, and HNF-1? in BE biopsies. In conclusion, the human ASBT promoter is activated transcriptionally by CDX1 and CDX2. Our finding provides a possible explanation for the reported observation that ASBT is aberrantly expressed in esophageal metaplasia that also expresses CDX transcription factors.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpgi.00102.2011
View details for PubMedID 22016432