Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Cardiology
  • Pediatric Electrophysiology
  • Arrhythmias in Adult Congenital Heart Disease

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Medical Education:Albert Einstein College of Medicine (2004) NY
  • Internship:Children's Hospital Los Angeles (2005) CA
  • Residency:Children's Hospital Los Angeles (2007) CA
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (2007)
  • Fellowship, Stanford Hospital and Clinics-Pediatric Cardiology, CA (2010)
  • Fellowship, Stanford Hospital and Clinics- Pediatric Electrophysiology, CA (2011)
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Cardiology, American Board of Pediatrics (2010)
  • Board Certification, Adult Congenital Heart Disease, American Board of Internal Medicine (2015)
  • CEPS-PC, Certified Electrophysiology Specialist-Pediatric Cardiology, International Board of Heart Rhythm Examiners, Electrophysiology (2015)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Arrhythmias in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Disease


Graduate and Fellowship Programs

  • Pediatric Cardiology (Fellowship Program)


All Publications

  • Is There a Difference in Tachycardia Cycle Length during SVT in Children with AVRT and AVNRT? Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE Mills, M. F., Motonaga, K. S., Trela, A., Dubin, A. M., Avasarala, K., Ceresnak, S. R. 2016


    There are limited adult data suggesting the tachycardia cycle length (TCL) of atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (AVRT) is shorter than atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT), though little data exist in children. We sought to determine if there is a difference in TCL between AVRT and AVNRT in children.A single-center retrospective review of children with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) from 2000 to 2015 was performed.Age ≤ 18 years, invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) confirming AVRT or AVNRT.Atypical AVNRT, congenital heart disease, antiarrhythmic medication use at time of EPS. Data were compared between patients with AVRT and AVNRT via t-test, χ(2) test, and linear regression.A total of 835 patients were included (12 ± 4 years, 52 ± 31 kg, TCL 321 ± 55 ms), 539 (65%) with AVRT (270 Wolff-Parkinson-White, 269 concealed pathways) and 296 (35%) with AVNRT. Patients with AVRT were younger (11.7 ± 4.1 years vs 13.0 ± 3.6 years, P < 0.001) and smaller (49 ± 22 kg vs 57 ± 43 kg, P < 0.001). In the baseline state, the TCL was shorter in AVRT than AVRNT (329 ± 51 ms vs 340 ± 60 ms, P = 0.04). In patients requiring isoproterenol to induce SVT, there was no difference in TCL (290 ± 49 ms vs 297 ± 49 ms, P = 0.26). When controlling for age, there was no difference in TCL between AVRT and AVNRT at baseline or on isoproterenol. The regression equation for TCL in the baseline state was TCL = 290 + 4 (age), indicating the TCL will increase by 4 ms above a baseline of 290 ms for each year of life.When controlling for age, there is no difference in the TCL between AVRT and AVNRT in children. Age, not tachycardia mechanism, is the most significant factor in predicting TCL.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pace.12950

    View details for PubMedID 27653639

  • Risk of cardiac disease and observations on lack of potential predictors by clinical history among children presenting for cardiac evaluation of mid-exertional syncope CARDIOLOGY IN THE YOUNG Miyake, C. Y., Motonaga, K. S., Fischer-Colbrie, M. E., Chen, L., Hanisch, D. G., Balise, R. R., Kim, J. J., Dubin, A. M. 2016; 26 (5): 894-900


    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cardiac disorders among children with mid-exertional syncope evaluated by a paediatric cardiologist, determine how often a diagnosis was not established, and define potential predictors to differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac causes. Study design We carried out a single-centre, retrospective review of children who presented for cardiac evaluation due to a history of exertional syncope between 1999 and 2012. Inclusion criteria included the following: (1) age ⩽18 years; (2) mid-exertional syncope; (3) electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and an exercise stress test, electrophysiology study, or tilt test, with exception of long QT, which did not require additional testing; and (4) evaluation by a paediatric cardiologist. Mid-exertional syncope was defined as loss of consciousness in the midst of active physical activity. Patients with peri-exertional syncope immediately surrounding but not during active physical exertion were excluded.A total of 60 patients met the criteria for mid-exertional syncope; 32 (53%) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope and 28 with non-cardiac syncope. A majority of cardiac patients were diagnosed with an electrical myopathy, the most common being Long QT syndrome. In nearly half of the patients, a diagnosis could not be established or syncope was felt to be vasovagal in nature. Neither the type of exertional activity nor the symptoms or lack of symptoms occurring before, immediately preceding, and after the syncopal event differentiated those with or without a cardiac diagnosis.Children with mid-exertional syncope are at risk for cardiac disease and warrant evaluation. Reported symptoms may not differentiate benign causes from life-threatening disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1047951115001481

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377101300008

    View details for PubMedID 26277987

  • Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Description and Evaluation of a Novel Intensive Training Program for Pediatric Cardiology Trainees PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY Ceresnak, S. R., Axelrod, D. M., Motonaga, K. S., Johnson, E. R., Krawczeski, C. D. 2016; 37 (5): 834-844


    The transition from residency to subspecialty fellowship in a procedurally driven field such as pediatric cardiology is challenging for trainees. We describe and assess the educational value of a pediatric cardiology "boot camp" educational tool designed to help prepare trainees for cardiology fellowship. A two-day intensive training program was provided for pediatric cardiology fellows in July 2015 at a large fellowship training program. Hands-on experiences and simulations were provided in: anatomy, auscultation, echocardiography, catheterization, cardiovascular intensive care (CVICU), electrophysiology (EP), heart failure, and cardiac surgery. Knowledge-based exams as well as surveys were completed by each participant pre-training and post-training. Pre- and post-exam results were compared via paired t tests, and survey results were compared via Wilcoxon rank sum. A total of eight participants were included. After boot camp, there was a significant improvement between pre- and post-exam scores (PRE 54 ± 9 % vs. POST 85 ± 8 %; p ≤ 0.001). On pre-training survey, the most common concerns about starting fellowship included: CVICU emergencies, technical aspects of the catheterization/EP labs, using temporary and permanent pacemakers/implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), and ECG interpretation. Comparing pre- and post-surveys, there was a statistically significant improvement in the participants comfort level in 33 of 36 (92 %) areas of assessment. All participants (8/8, 100 %) strongly agreed that the boot camp was a valuable learning experience and helped to alleviate anxieties about the start of fellowship. A pediatric cardiology boot camp experience at the start of cardiology fellowship can provide a strong foundation and serve as an educational springboard for pediatric cardiology fellows.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-016-1357-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377722400005

    View details for PubMedID 26961569

  • Electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities and increased risk of life-threatening arrhythmias in children with dilated cardiomyopathy HEART RHYTHM Chen, S., Motonaga, K. S., Hollander, S. A., Almond, C. S., Rosenthal, D. N., Kaufman, B. D., May, L. J., Avasarala, K., Dao, D. T., Dubin, A. M., Ceresnak, S. R. 2016; 13 (6): 1289-1296


    Life-threatening arrhythmia events (LTEs) occur in ~5% of children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). While prolonged QRS duration has been shown to be associated with LTEs, electrocardiographic (ECG) repolarization findings have not been examined.We sought to determine the associations between ECG repolarization abnormalities and LTEs in children with DCM.A single-center retrospective review of children with DCM was performed. LTEs were defined as documented ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation requiring medical intervention. Three pediatric cardiologists, blinded to clinical events, evaluated ECGs obtained at the time of initial referral. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate time to LTEs.A total of 137 patients (mean age 7.8 ± 6.7 years; 75(55%) male patients) with DCM (mean ejection fraction 35% ± 16%) were included; 67 patients (49%) had a corrected JT (JTc) interval of ≥340 ms, 72 (53%) had a corrected QT (QTc) interval of ≥450 ms, and 41 (30%) had abnormal T waves. LTEs occurred in 15 patients at a median of 12 months (interquartile range 3-36 months) after the initial ECG. Patients with LTEs had a longer JTc interval (371 ± 77 ms vs 342 ± 41 ms; P = .02) and a longer QTc interval (488 ± 96 ms vs 453 ± 44 ms; P = .01). In survival analysis, a JTc interval of ≥390 ms (hazard ratio [HR] 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-14.83; P = .03), a QTc interval of ≥510 ms (HR 6.95; 95% CI 1.53-31.49; P = .01), abnormal T-wave inversion (HR 11.62; 95% CI 2.75-49.00; P = .001), and ST-segment depression (HR 6.91; 95% CI 1.25-38.27; P = .03) were associated with an increased risk of LTEs, even after adjusting for QRS duration and amiodarone use.Repolarization abnormalities are common in children with DCM. Certain ECG repolarization abnormalities, such as significantly prolonged JTc and QTc intervals, may be useful in identifying patients at risk of LTEs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2016.02.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000376334800016

    View details for PubMedID 26945851

  • Unusual Outflow Tract Ventricular Tachycardia. Cardiac electrophysiology clinics Motonaga, K. S., Ceresnak, S. R., Hsia, H. H. 2016; 8 (1): 79-88


    Distinguishing premature ventricular contractions/ventricular tachycardia from the right ventricular outflow tract versus the left ventricular outflow tract can be difficult by electrocardiogram findings alone. A thorough understanding of the outflow tract anatomy and a systematic and meticulous approach to mapping of the ventricular outflow regions and great vessels increases the success rate and decreases the risk of damage to adjacent structures and the conduction system. The use of multimodality imaging, particularly real-time intracardiac echocardiographic guidance, is essential for defining anatomy, ensuring adequate catheter contact, and minimizing risks.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccep.2015.10.032

    View details for PubMedID 26920175

  • A Pilot Study Assessing ECG versus ECHO Ventriculoventricular Optimization in Pediatric Resynchronization Patients. Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology Punn, R., Hanisch, D., Motonaga, K. S., Rosenthal, D. N., Ceresnak, S. R., Dubin, A. M. 2016; 27 (2): 210-216


    Cardiac resynchronization therapy indications and management are well described in adults. Echocardiography (ECHO) has been used to optimize mechanical synchrony in these patients; however, there are issues with reproducibility and time intensity. Pediatric patients add challenges, with diverse substrates and limited capacity for cooperation. Electrocardiographic (ECG) methods to assess electrical synchrony are expeditious but have not been extensively studied in children. We sought to compare ECHO and ECG CRT optimization in children.Prospective, pediatric, single-center cross-over trial comparing ECHO and ECG optimization with CRT. Patients were assigned to undergo either ECHO or ECG optimization, followed for 6 months, and crossed-over to the other assignment for another 6 months. ECHO pulsed-wave tissue Doppler and 12-lead ECG were obtained for 5 VV delays. ECG optimization was defined as the shortest QRSD and ECHO optimization as the lowest dyssynchrony index. ECHOs/ECGs were interpreted by readers blinded to optimization technique. After each 6 month period, these data were collected: ejection fraction, velocimetry-derived cardiac index, quality of life, ECHO-derived stroke distance, M-mode dyssynchrony, study cost, and time. Outcomes for each optimization method were compared.From June 2012 to December 2013, 19 patients enrolled. Mean age was 9.1 ± 4.3 years; 14 (74%) had structural heart disease. The mean time for optimization was shorter using ECG than ECHO (9 ± 1 min vs. 68 ± 13 min, P < 0.01). Mean cost for charges was $4,400 ± 700 less for ECG. No other outcome differed between groups.ECHO optimization of synchrony was not superior to ECG optimization in this pilot study. ECG optimization required less time and cost than ECHO optimization.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jce.12863

    View details for PubMedID 26515428

  • 50 is the new 70: Short ventriculoatrial times are common in children with atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia HEART RHYTHM Ceresnak, S. R., Doan, L. N., Motonaga, K. S., Avasarala, K., Trela, A. V., Reddy, C. D., Dubin, A. M. 2015; 12 (7): 1541-1547


    One of the basic electrophysiological principles of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) is that ventriculoatrial (VA) times during tachycardia are >70 ms. We hypothesized, however, that children may commonly have VA times <70 ms in AVRT.This study sought to determine the incidence and characteristics associated with short-VA AVRT in children.A retrospective single-center review of children with AVRT from 2000 to 2014 was performed. All patients ≤18 years of age with AVRT at electrophysiology study were included. Patients with persistent junctional reciprocating tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, and tachycardia not unequivocally proven to be AVRT were excluded. VA time was defined as the time between earliest ventricular activation and earliest atrial activation in any lead and was confirmed by 2 electrophysiologists. Patients with VA times <70 ms (SHORT-VA) and those with standard VA times ≥70 ms (STD-VA) were compared. Logistic regression analysis identified characteristics of SHORT-VA patients.A total of 495 patients with AVRT were included (mean age 11.7 ± 4.1 years). There were 265 patients (54%) with concealed accessory pathways (APs) and 230 (46%) with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. AP location was left-sided in 301 patients (61%) and right-sided in 194 (39%). The mean VA time in AVRT was 100 ± 33 ms. A total of 63 patients (13%) had VA times <70 ms (SHORT-VA). The shortest VA time during AVRT was 50 ms. There was no difference in age, AV nodal block cycle, or body surface area between SHORT-VA and STD-VA patients, but SHORT-VA patients had lower weight (43 ± 17 vs 51 ± 23 kg, P = .02), lower AV nodal effective refractory period (AVNERP; 269 ± 50 vs 245 ± 52 ms, P < .01), and more left-sided APs (50 [79%] vs 251 [58%]; P < .01]. On multivariate logistic regression, factors associated with SHORT-VA included left-sided AP (odds ratio [OR] 5.79, confidence interval [95% CI] 2.21-15.1, P < .01), shorter AVNERP (OR 0.99, CI 0.98-0.99, P < .01), and lower weight (OR 0.97, CI 0.95-0.99, P < .01).Children with AVRT can frequently have VA times <70 ms, with 50 ms being the shortest VA time. This finding debunks the classic electrophysiology principle that VA times in AVRT must be >70 ms. SHORT-VA AVRT was more common in children with left-sided APs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.03.047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356766500028

  • Success Rates in Pediatric WPW Ablation Are Improved with 3-Dimensional Mapping Systems Compared with Fluoroscopy Alone: A Multicenter Study JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Ceresnak, S. R., Dubin, A. M., Kim, J. J., Valdes, S. O., Fishberger, S. B., Shetty, I., Zimmerman, F., Tanel, R. E., Epstein, M. R., Motonaga, K. S., Capone, C. A., Nappo, L., Gates, G. J., Pass, R. H. 2015; 26 (4): 412-416


    Three-dimensional mapping (3-D) systems are frequently used for ablation of supraventricular tachycardia. Prior studies have demonstrated radiation dosage reduction with 3-D, but there are no data on whether 3-D improves the efficacy of ablation of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW). We sought to determine if 3-D improves the success rate for ablation of WPW in children.Multicenter retrospective study including patients ≤21 years of age with WPW undergoing ablation from 2008 to 2012. Success rates using the 2 techniques (3-D vs. fluoroscopy alone [FLUORO]) were compared.Six hundred and fifty-one cases were included (58% male, mean age 13 ± 4 years, 366 [56%] 3-D). Baseline characteristics including gender, weight, accessory pathway (AP) location, number of APs, and repeat ablation attempts were similar between the 2 groups (3-D and FLUORO) The 3-D group was slightly younger (12.7 ± 4.0 vs. 13.3 ± 4.0 years; P = 0.04) and less likely to undergo ablation utilizing cryoenergy (38 [10%] vs. 56 [20%]; P < 0.01). The 3-D group had a higher acute success rate of ablation (355 [97%] vs. 260 [91%]; P < 0.01). No differences were seen in recurrence (16 [5%] vs. 26 [9%]; P = 0.09) or complication rates (1 [0.3%] vs. 1 [0.4%]; P = 0.86) between the groups. On multivariable analysis, 3-D was shown to significantly improve success at ablation with an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% CI 1.44-6.72; P < 0.01).Use of 3-D significantly improved success rates for ablation of WPW in children. The increase in acute success associated with 3-D suggests it is an important adjunct for catheter ablation of WPW in children.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jce.12623

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352814300012

  • Diminished exercise capacity and chronotropic incompetence in pediatric patients with congenital complete heart block and chronic right ventricular pacing HEART RHYTHM Motonaga, K. S., Punn, R., Axelrod, D. M., Ceresnak, S. R., Hanisch, D., Kazmucha, J. A., Dubin, A. M. 2015; 12 (3): 560-565


    Chronic right ventricular (RV) pacing has been associated with decreased exercise capacity and left ventricular (LV) function in adults with congenital complete atrioventricular block (CCAVB), but not in children.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the exercise capacity and LV function in pediatric patients with CCAVB receiving chronic RV pacing.We prospectively evaluated pediatric patients with isolated CCAVB receiving atrial synchronous RV pacing for at least 5 years. Supine bicycle ergometry was performed, and LV ejection fraction (EF) was evaluated by echocardiography.Ten CCAVB subjects and 31 controls were matched for age, gender, and body surface area. CCAVB subjects had normal resting EF (63.1% ± 4.0%) and had been paced for 7.9 ± 1.4 years. Exercise testing demonstrated reduced functional capacity in CCAVB patients compared to controls with a lower VO2peak (26.0 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min vs 39.9 ± 7.0 mL/kg/min, P <.001), anaerobic threshold (15.6 ± 3.9 mL/kg/min vs 18.8 ± 2.7 mL/kg/min, P = .007), and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (1210 ± 406 vs 1841 ± 452, P <.001). Maximum heart rate (165 ± 8 bpm vs 185 ± 9 bpm, P <.001) and systolic blood pressure (159 ± 17 mm Hg vs 185 ± 12 mm Hg, P <.019) also were reduced in CCAVB patients despite maximal effort (respiratory exchange ratio 1.2 ± 0.1). EF was augmented with exercise in controls but not in CCAVB patients (13.2% ± 9.3% vs 0.2% ± 4.8% increase, P <.001).Clinically asymptomatic children with chronic RV pacing due to CCAVB have significant reductions in functional capacity accompanied by chronotropic incompetence and inability to augment EF with exercise.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.11.036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349966100018

    View details for PubMedID 25433143

  • Ventricular lead redundancy to prevent cardiovascular events and sudden death from lead fracture in pacemaker-dependent children HEART RHYTHM Ceresnak, S. R., Perera, J. L., Motonaga, K. S., Avasarala, K., Malloy-Walton, L., Hanisch, D., Punn, R., Maeda, K., Reddy, V. M., Doan, L. N., Kirby, K., Dubin, A. M. 2015; 12 (1): 111-116


    Children requiring a permanent epicardial pacemaker(PM) traditionally have a single lead placed on the right ventricle. Lead failure in pacemaker dependent(PMD) children, however, can result in cardiovascular events(CVE) and death.To determine if redundant ventricular lead systems(RVLS) can safeguard against CVE and death in PMD children.Single-center study of PMD patients undergoing placement of RVLS from 2002-2013. Patients ≤ 21 years of age who were PMD were included. Patients with biventricular systems(BiV) systems placed for standard resynchronization indications were excluded. RVLS patients were compared to PMD patients with only a single pacing lead on the ventricle(SiV).769 patients underwent PM/ICD placement with 76 BiV implants and there were 49 PMD patients(6%). 13 patients underwent implantation of a RVLS. There was no difference between the RVLS group(n=13) and SiV PMD control group(n=24) with regard to age(RVLS 9.5±5.8 vs. SiV 9.4±6.7 years; p=0.52), weight(RVLS 38.2±32.6 vs. SiV 35.2±29.3 kg; p=0.62), indication for pacing, procedural complications or time to follow-up. There were 2 lead fractures (17%) in the RVLS group(mean follow-up 3.8±2.9 years) with no deaths or presentations with CVE. The SiV control group had 3 lead fractures (13%)(mean follow-up 2.8±2.9 years), with no deaths, but all 3 patients presented with CVE and required emergent PM placement.RVLS systems should be considered in children who are PMD and require permanent epicardial pacing. BiV pacing and RVLS may decrease the risk of CVEs in the event of lead failure in PMD patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm2014.09.056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346857100022

  • Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for Pediatric Patients With Heart Failure and Congenital Heart Disease A Reappraisal of Results CIRCULATION Motonaga, K. S., Dubin, A. M. 2014; 129 (18): 1879-1891
  • Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Brugada Syndrome: A Survey of Pediatric Electrophysiologists PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Harris, B. U., Miyake, C. Y., Motonaga, K. S., Dubin, A. M. 2014; 37 (5): 638-642


    Brugada syndrome (BrS) can be difficult to diagnose and treat, especially in the young patient. As there is currently no consensus on the evaluation and treatment of BrS in the pediatric population, we sought to describe the current practice for the diagnosis and treatment of BrS among pediatric electrophysiologists.A web-based survey was distributed to 204 physician members (MDs) of The Pediatric and Adult Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES). Practice characteristics, BrS patient attributes, and diagnostic and therapeutic preferences were collected.Responses were obtained from 83 pediatric electrophysiologists. The most common initial presentation was family history. There is a large variation in testing, particularly in the use of electrophysiology (EP) studies, drug challenge testing, and genetic testing. Despite limited treatment options, there is only consensus in the therapeutic approach to the pediatric patient with symptomatic BrS with 97% of physicians recommending an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). In the asymptomatic patient, a wide variation in therapy was seen with only 27% of physicians recommending an ICD CONCLUSIONS: Significant practice variation exists among pediatric electrophysiologists with deviation from accepted diagnostic and therapeutic practices for adult BrS patients. Further studies are necessary to establish best practice guidelines for BrS in the pediatric EP community.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pace.12346

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334863000016

  • In-Hospital Arrhythmia Development and Outcomes in Pediatric Patients With Acute Myocarditis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Miyake, C. Y., Teele, S. A., Chen, L., Motonaga, K. S., Dubin, A. M., Balasubramanian, S., Balise, R. R., Rosenthal, D. N., Alexander, M. E., Walsh, E. P., Mah, D. Y. 2014; 113 (3): 535-540


    Cardiac arrhythmias are a complication of myocarditis. There are no large studies of in-hospital arrhythmia development and outcomes in pediatric patients with acute myocarditis. This was a retrospective 2-center review of patients ≤21 years hospitalized with acute myocarditis from 1996 to 2012. Fulminant myocarditis was defined as the need for inotropic support within 24 hours of presentation. Acute arrhythmias occurred at presentation and subacute after admission. Eighty-five patients (59% men) presented at a median age of 10 years (1 day to 18 years). Arrhythmias occurred in 38 patients (45%): 16 acute, 12 subacute, and 9 acute and subacute (1 onset unknown). Arrhythmias were associated with low voltages on the electrocardiogram (14 of 34, 41% vs 6 of 47, 13%; odds ratio [OR] 4.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60 to 14.31) and worse outcome (mechanical support, orthotopic heart transplant, or death; OR 7.59, 95% CI 2.61 to 22.07) but were not statistically significantly associated with a fulminant course, ST changes, initial myocardial function, lactate, creatinine level, C-reactive protein and/or erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or troponin I level, after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Subacute arrhythmias were associated with preceding ST changes (10 of 15, 67% vs 15 of 59, 25%, OR 5.87, 95% CI 1.73 to 19.93). All patients surviving to discharge had arrhythmia resolution or control before discharge (10 on antiarrhythmic), with 1 exception (patient with complete heart block requiring a pacemaker). At 1-year follow-up, there were 3 recurrences of ventricular arrhythmias, but no arrhythmia-related mortality. In conclusion, arrhythmias are common in pediatric patients with myocarditis, occurring in nearly 1/2 of all hospitalized children and are associated with a worse outcome. Early identification of subacute arrhythmias using electrocardiographic changes may help management. A majority of patients do not require continued postdischarge arrhythmia treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.10.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331161700022

  • Electrophysiologic therapeutics in heart failure in adult congenital heart disease. Heart failure clinics Motonaga, K. S., Khairy, P., Dubin, A. M. 2014; 10 (1): 69-89


    Arrhythmias have long been recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult with congenital heart disease. It is important that the clinician accurately diagnoses these disturbances and is cognizant of the full array of antiarrhythmic agents and devices available to treat these conditions. This review discusses the most common arrhythmias encountered in this population and the therapeutic options available. Specific issues unique to this population are also addressed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hfc.2013.09.011

    View details for PubMedID 24275296

  • Do Pediatric Electrophysiologists Read Pre-Participation Screening Electrocardiograms More Accurately than General Pediatric Cardiologists? JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Harbison, A. L., Hill, A. C., Motonaga, K. S., Miyake, C. Y., Dubin, A. M. 2013; 163 (6): 1775-1777


    Pre-participation electrocardiogram (ECG) screening of athletes is controversial. Pediatric electrophysiologists do not interpret screening ECGs more accurately than pediatric cardiologists with average number of correct ECG interpretations of 13.1-12.4 (P = .14). Electrophysiologists ordered fewer follow-up tests and were more likely to give sports recommendations based on published guidelines.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.07.034

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327543200050

  • The effects of ketamine on dexmedetomidine-induced electrophysiologic changes in children PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA Char, D., Drover, D. R., Motonaga, K. S., Gupta, S., Miyake, C. Y., Dubin, A. M., Hammer, G. B. 2013; 23 (10): 898-905


    BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist used for sedation and analgesia in children. We previously showed that dexmedetomidine depresses sinus and AV nodal function resulting in adverse hemodynamic effects such as bradycardia and increased blood pressure. We hypothesized that these effects of dexmedetomidine might be antagonized by co-administration of ketamine, which has sympathomimetic properties. METHODS: Twenty-two children (ages 5-17 years) undergoing electrophysiologic (EP) study and ablation for supraventricular tachycardia were enrolled. Patients were kept sedated with continuous infusion of propofol at a fixed rate. Hemodynamic and EP parameters were measured before and after a loading dose of dexmedetomidine (1 μg·kg(-1) ). A continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine (0.7 μg·kg(-1) ·h(-1) ) was initiated and a ketamine loading dose (1 mg·kg(-1) ), followed by continuous infusion (1 mg·kg(-1) ·h(-1) ), was given. A repeat set of hemodynamic and EP parameters were then measured at the time of projected peak tissue concentration for both drugs. RESULTS: A significant increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) was seen compared with baseline after loading of dexmedetomidine. This returned to baseline after co-administration of ketamine (mean difference between baseline and after ketamine 1.8 mmHg; 95%CI, -7.8 to 4.3; P = <0.001). A decrease in heart rate was seen after dexmedetomidine followed by a return to baseline after co-administration of ketamine (mean difference between baseline and after ketamine -6.5 bpm; 95%CI, -11.2 to -1.8; P = 0.005). Sinus node recovery time was lengthened after dexmedetomidine but returned to baseline after ketamine (mean difference between baseline and after ketamine -16.2 ms; 95%CI, -63 to 30; P = 0.014). QT was prolonged after dexmedetomidine and returned to baseline after ketamine (mean difference between baseline and after ketamine -34.2 ms; 95%CI, -48.4 to -20.2; P = 0.004). AV nodal effective refractory period was also impaired after dexmedetomidine and showed weak evidence for return to baseline function after ketamine (mean difference between baseline and after ketamine -22.8 ms; 95%CI, -40.2 to -5.2; P = 0.069). CONCLUSION: The concurrent use of ketamine may mitigate the negative chronotropic effects of dexmedetomidine.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.12143

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323885500004

  • Infant ventricular fibrillation after ST-segment changes and QRS widening: a new cause of sudden infant death? Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology Miyake, C. Y., Davis, A. M., Motonaga, K. S., Dubin, A. M., Berul, C. I., Cecchin, F. 2013; 6 (4): 712-718


    BACKGROUND: -Ventricular arrhythmia related sudden cardiac arrest in infants with structurally normal hearts is rare. There have been no previously published reports of infants less than 3 months of age with ventricular fibrillation in which a primary diagnosis could not be defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Retrospective chart review of 3 unrelated infants less than 2 months of age from 3 different tertiary care centers within the United States and Australia. All 3 infants survived sudden cardiac arrest secondary to multiple episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Each infant demonstrated unique and transient ECG findings consisting of ST changes and QRS widening prior to arrhythmia onset that have not been previously reported. Amiodarone, sedation, sodium channel blocking agents and/or ventricular pacing were effective in suppressing acute events. Despite thorough investigation including genetic testing, the etiology of the ventricular arrhythmias in each of these infants remains unclear. CONCLUSIONS: -This is the first report of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation in young infants preceded by stereotypical transient ECG changes. These findings may represent a new, potentially treatable cause of sudden infant death. Recognition of these prodromal changes may be important in future management and survival of these infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000444

    View details for PubMedID 23748209

  • Insights into dyssynchrony in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome HEART RHYTHM Motonaga, K. S., Miyake, C. Y., Punn, R., Rosenthal, D. N., Dubin, A. M. 2012; 9 (12): 2010-2015


    Cardiac resynchronization therapy has been proposed for treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) patients with right ventricular (RV) failure. The role of dyssynchrony, however, is poorly understood in this population.The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony in HLHS using 3-dimensional electrical mapping, tissue Doppler indices of wall motion, and vector velocity imaging.Eleven HLHS subjects with normal RV function and ten normal subjects (age 3-18 years) were studied. Electrical and mechanical activation times and dyssynchrony indices (electrical dyssynchrony index, mechanical dyssynchrony index) were calculated using 3-dimensional electrical mapping, tissue Doppler indices, and vector velocity imaging.No differences in measures of electrical dyssynchrony were seen when comparing HLHS patients and normal patients (electrical activation time 63.3 ± 22.8 ms vs 56.2 ± 11.2 ms, P = .38; electrical dyssynchrony index 13.7 ± 6.3 ms vs 11.6 ± 3.0 ms, P = .34). However, measures of mechanical dyssynchrony were markedly abnormal in HLHS patients despite normal RV function (mechanical activation time 16 ± 11.3 ms vs 0.9±1.9 ms, P = .01; mechanical dyssynchrony index 7.5 ± 5.5 vs 0.4 ± 0.8, P<.01).Patients with HLHS and preserved RV systolic function have normal electrical activation when compared to patients with normal right and left ventricles. In contrast, these patients demonstrate mechanical dyssynchrony compared to patients with normal right and left ventricles. This finding raises important questions about the indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy in this patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.08.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311791900029

    View details for PubMedID 23085485

  • Are wide complex tachycardia algorithms applicable in children and patients with congenital heart disease? JOURNAL OF ELECTROCARDIOLOGY Ceresnak, S. R., Liberman, L., Avasarala, K., Tanel, R., Motonaga, K. S., Dubin, A. M. 2010; 43 (6): 694-700


    Several algorithms have been developed to help determine the etiology of wide complex tachycardias (WCTs) in adults. Sensitivity and specificity for differentiating supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with aberration from ventricular tachycardia (VT) in adults have been demonstrated to be as high as 98% and 97%. These algorithms have not been tested in the pediatric population. We hypothesize that these algorithms have lower diagnostic accuracy in children and patients with congenital heart disease.A retrospective review of the pediatric electrophysiology database at Stanford from 2001 to 2008 was performed. All children with WCT, a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) available for review, and an electrophysiology study confirming the etiology of the rhythm were included. Patients with a paced rhythm were excluded. The ECGs were analyzed by 2 electrophysiologists blinded to the diagnosis according to the algorithms described in Brugada et al,(2) and Vereckei et al.(5) Additional ECG findings were recorded by each electrophysiologist.A total of 65 WCT ECGs in 58 patients were identified. Supraventricular tachycardia was noted in 62% (40/65) and VT in 38% (25/65) of the ECGs. The mean age was 13.5 years (SD ± 5.1), the mean weight was 51.8 kg (SD ± 22.4), and 48% (31/65) were male. The mean tachycardia cycle length was 340 milliseconds (SD ± 95). Congenital heart disease (CHD) was present in 37% (24/65) of patients (7 tetralogy of Fallot, 6 Ebstein's, 4 double-outlet right ventricle, 3 complex CHD, 2 d-transposition of great arteries, 1 status-post orthotopic heart transplantation, 1 ventricular septal defect). The Brugada algorithm correctly predicted the diagnosis 69% (45/65) of the time, the Vereckei algorithm correctly predicted the diagnosis 66% (43/65) of the time, and the blinded reviewer correctly predicted the diagnosis 78% (51/65) of the time. There was no difference in the efficacy of the algorithms in patients with CHD vs those with structurally normal hearts. The findings of left superior axis deviation (P < .01) and a notch in the QRS downstroke of V(1) or V(2) (P < .01) were more common in VT than SVT, whereas a positive QRS deflection in V(1) (P = .03) was more commonly present in SVT than VT.The Brugada and Vereckei algorithms have lower diagnostic accuracy in the pediatric population and in patients with congenital heart disease than in the adult population. Left superior axis deviation and a notch in the QRS downstroke were more commonly associated with VT, whereas a positive QRS deflection in V(1) was more commonly associated with SVT in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2010.02.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284514700039

    View details for PubMedID 20382398