Ph.D., Univ. California, San Francisco, Cell Biology (1993)
B.S., Mass. Institute of Technology, Biology (1988)
B.S., Mass. Institute of Technology, Physics (1988)
We study the interactions between infectious bacteria and the human host cell actin cytoskeleton. Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri are unrelated food-borne bacterial pathogens that share a common mechanism of invasion and actin-dependent intercellular spread in epithelial cells. Our studies fall into three broad areas: the biochemical basis of actin-based motility by these bacteria, the biophysical mechanism of force generation, and the evolutionary origin of pathogenesis.
Medical studies of bacterial diseases have traditionally focused on the behavior of the bacteria themselves and on the response of the host immune system to infection. However, recent advances in our understanding of the cell biology of host-pathogen relationships indicate that disease-causing bacteria have developed extraordinarily complex and subtle ways of communicating with the host. It is clear that infection is not a process performed solely by a bacterium, but rather an elaborately choreographed interaction between the bacterium and the host cell. Using a combination of videomicroscopy, biochemistry, and molecular genetics, we study the interactions between infectious bacteria and the human host cell cytoskeleton. By examining the mechanisms these bacteria use to communicate with the host cell cytoskeleton, we hope to identify new ways to interfere with the infection process, and arrive at a deeper understanding of the normal regulation of cytoskeletal shape changes and cell movement.
Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacterium that can cause serious food-borne infections in pregnant women, newborns, and immunocompromised adults. Shigella flexneri is an unrelated Gram-negative bacterium, a causative agent of bacillary dysentery. Both grow directly in the cytoplasm of infected host cells, and move rapidly throughout the infected cell using a remarkable form of actin-based motility. Within a few hours after infection, host cell actin filaments initially form a dense cloud around the intracytoplasmic bacteria, and then rearrange to form a polarized "comet tail," which is associated with all moving bacteria. The comet tail is made up of short actin filaments crosslinked into a meshwork in which the majority of filaments have their barbed (rapidly growing) ends oriented toward the bacterium. We have demonstrated that new actin filament polymerization occurs only at the front of the tail, adjacent to the surface of the bacterium, and that polymerization occurs at the same rate as bacterial propulsion. Bacteria spread from cell to cell by moving into long membrane-bound protrusions that are phagocytosed by neighboring cells. We have found that a single bacterial surface protein is necessary and sufficient for motility in each organism; ActA in L. monocytogenes and IcsA in Shigella flexneri. Surprisingly, these two proteins share no primary sequence similarity, though their functions are essentially identical.
When Staphylococcus aureus undergoes cytokinesis, it builds a septum, generating two hemispherical daughters whose cell walls are only connected via a narrow peripheral ring. We found that resolution of this ring occurred within milliseconds ("popping"), without detectable changes in cell volume. The likelihood of popping depended on cell-wall stress, and the separating cells split open asymmetrically, leaving the daughters connected by a hinge. An elastostatic model of the wall indicated high circumferential stress in the peripheral ring before popping. Last, we observed small perforations in the peripheral ring that are likely initial points of mechanical failure. Thus, the ultrafast daughter cell separation in S. aureus appears to be driven by accumulation of stress in the peripheral ring and exhibits hallmarks of mechanical crack propagation.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aaa1511
View details for PubMedID 25931560
Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions.
View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.201409001
View details for Web of Science ID 000354012800012
Motile cells exposed to an external direct current electric field will reorient and migrate along the direction of the electric potential in a process known as galvanotaxis. The underlying physical mechanism that allows a cell to sense an electric field is unknown, although several plausible hypotheses have been proposed. In this work we evaluate the validity of each of these mechanisms.We find that the directional motile response of fish epidermal cells to the cathode in an electric field does not require extracellular sodium or potassium, is insensitive to membrane potential, and is also insensitive to perturbation of calcium, sodium, hydrogen, or chloride ion transport across the plasma membrane. Cells migrate in the direction of applied forces from laminar fluid flow, but reversal of electro-osmotic flow did not affect the galvanotactic response. Galvanotaxis fails when extracellular pH is below 6, suggesting that the effective charge of membrane components might be a crucial factor. Slowing the migration of membrane components with an increase in aqueous viscosity slows the kinetics of the galvanotactic response. In addition, inhibition of PI3K reverses the cell's response to the anode, suggesting the existence of multiple signaling pathways downstream of the galvanotactic signal.Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that electrophoretic redistribution of membrane components of the motile cell is the primary physical mechanism for motile cells to sense an electric field. This chemical polarization of the cellular membrane is then transduced by intracellular signaling pathways canonical to chemotaxis to dictate the cell's direction of travel.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2013.02.047
View details for Web of Science ID 000317371200019
View details for PubMedID 23541731
Cells are dynamic systems capable of spontaneously switching among stable states. One striking example of this is spontaneous symmetry breaking and motility initiation in fish epithelial keratocytes. Although the biochemical and mechanical mechanisms that control steady-state migration in these cells have been well characterized, the mechanisms underlying symmetry breaking are less well understood. In this work, we have combined experimental manipulations of cell-substrate adhesion strength and myosin activity, traction force measurements, and mathematical modeling to develop a comprehensive mechanical model for symmetry breaking and motility initiation in fish epithelial keratocytes. Our results suggest that stochastic fluctuations in adhesion strength and myosin localization drive actin network flow rates in the prospective cell rear above a critical threshold. Above this threshold, high actin flow rates induce a nonlinear switch in adhesion strength, locally switching adhesions from gripping to slipping and further accelerating actin flow in the prospective cell rear, resulting in rear retraction and motility initiation. We further show, both experimentally and with model simulations, that the global levels of adhesion strength and myosin activity control the stability of the stationary state: The frequency of symmetry breaking decreases with increasing adhesion strength and increases with increasing myosin contraction. Thus, the relative strengths of two opposing mechanical forces-contractility and cell-substrate adhesion-determine the likelihood of spontaneous symmetry breaking and motility initiation.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1417257112
View details for Web of Science ID 000353239100061
View details for PubMedID 25848042
Genetics, diet, and other environmental exposures are thought to be major factors in the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota of animals. However, the relative contributions of these factors in adult animals, as well as variation with time in a variety of important settings, are still not fully understood. We studied a population of inbred, female mice fed the same diet and housed under the same conditions. We collected fecal samples from 46 individual mice over two weeks, sampling four of these mice for periods as long as 236 days for a total of 190 samples, and determined the phylogenetic composition of their microbial communities after analyzing 1,849,990 high-quality pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Even under these controlled conditions, we found significant inter-individual variation in community composition, as well as variation within an individual over time, including increases in alpha diversity during the first 2 months of co-habitation. Some variation was explained by mouse membership in different cage and vendor shipment groups. The differences among individual mice from the same shipment group and cage were still significant. Overall, we found that 23% of the variation in intestinal microbiota composition was explained by changes within the fecal microbiota of a mouse over time, 12% was explained by persistent differences among individual mice, 14% by cage, and 18% by shipment group. Our findings suggest that the microbiota of controlled populations of inbred laboratory animals may not be as uniform as previously thought, that animal rearing and handling may account for some variation, and that as yet unidentified factors may explain additional components of variation in the composition of the microbiota within populations and individuals over time. These findings have implications for the design and interpretation of experiments involving laboratory animals.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0142825
View details for PubMedID 26565698
It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1402591111
View details for Web of Science ID 000336411300068
View details for PubMedID 24821776
During the early development of Xenopus laevis embryos, the first mitotic cell cycle is long (∼85 min) and the subsequent 11 cycles are short (∼30 min) and clock-like. Here we address the question of how the Cdk1 cell cycle oscillator changes between these two modes of operation. We found that the change can be attributed to an alteration in the balance between Wee1/Myt1 and Cdc25. The change in balance converts a circuit that acts like a positive-plus-negative feedback oscillator, with spikes of Cdk1 activation, to one that acts like a negative-feedback-only oscillator, with a shorter period and smoothly varying Cdk1 activity. Shortening the first cycle, by treating embryos with the Wee1A/Myt1 inhibitor PD0166285, resulted in a dramatic reduction in embryo viability, and restoring the length of the first cycle in inhibitor-treated embryos with low doses of cycloheximide partially rescued viability. Computations with an experimentally parameterized mathematical model show that modest changes in the Wee1/Cdc25 ratio can account for the observed qualitative changes in the cell cycle. The high ratio in the first cycle allows the period to be long and tunable, and decreasing the ratio in the subsequent cycles allows the oscillator to run at a maximal speed. Thus, the embryo rewires its feedback regulation to meet two different developmental requirements during early development.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001788
View details for PubMedID 24523664
Membrane tension plays an essential role in cell motility. The load imposed by the tensed membrane restrains actin polymerization, promotes rear retraction, and influences membrane transport. Moreover, membrane tension is crucial for large-scale coordination of cell boundary dynamics. Despite its importance, little is known about how membrane tension is set and regulated in cells. The prevailing hypothesis is that membrane tension is largely controlled by membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion and/or changes in membrane area.In this work, we measure the apparent membrane tension in rapidly moving fish epithelial keratocytes under normal and perturbed conditions with a tether-pulling assay. We find that enlargement of the cell surface area by fusion with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) has only minor effects on membrane tension and on cell movement. However, modulation of the cytoskeletal forces has a substantial influence on tension: reduction of the actin-pushing forces along the cell's leading edge leads to a significant decrease in membrane tension, whereas increase of the strength of adhesion and/or decrease of myosin-induced contraction leads to higher tension.We find that the membrane tension in rapidly moving keratocytes is primarily determined by a mechanical force balance between the cell membrane and cytoskeletal forces. Our results highlight the role of membrane tension as a global mechanical regulator of cell behavior.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2013.05.063
View details for Web of Science ID 000322930200016
View details for PubMedID 23831292
The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex bilayer composed of proteins, phospholipids, lipoproteins, and lipopolysaccharides. Despite recent advances revealing the molecular pathways underlying protein and lipopolysaccharide incorporation into the OM, the spatial distribution and dynamic regulation of these processes remain poorly understood. Here, we used sequence-specific fluorescent labeling to map the incorporation patterns of an OM-porin protein, LamB, by labeling proteins only after epitope exposure on the cell surface. Newly synthesized LamB appeared in discrete puncta, rather than evenly distributed over the cell surface. Further growth of bacteria after labeling resulted in divergence of labeled LamB puncta, consistent with a spatial pattern of OM growth in which new, unlabeled material was also inserted in patches. At the poles, puncta remained relatively stationary through several rounds of division, a salient characteristic of the OM protein population as a whole. We propose a biophysical model of growth in which patches of new OM material are added in discrete bursts that evolve in time according to Stokes flow and are randomly distributed over the cell surface. Simulations based on this model demonstrate that our experimental observations are consistent with a bursty insertion pattern without spatial bias across the cylindrical cell surface, with approximately one burst of ? 10(-2) µm(2) of OM material per two minutes per µm(2). Growth by insertion of discrete patches suggests that stochasticity plays a major role in patterning and material organization in the OM.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002680
View details for Web of Science ID 000309510900017
View details for PubMedID 23028278
The Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis contains 24 genes whose products harbor the structurally conserved surface-layer (S-layer) homology (SLH) domain. Proteins endowed with the SLH domain associate with the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) following secretion. Two such proteins, Sap and EA1, have the unique ability to self-assemble into a paracrystalline layer on the surface of bacilli and form S layers. Other SLH domain proteins can also be found within the S layer and have been designated Bacillus S-layer-associated protein (BSLs). While both S-layer proteins and BSLs bind the same SCWP, their deposition on the cell surface is not random. For example, BslO is targeted to septal peptidoglycan zones, where it catalyzes the separation of daughter cells. Here we show that an insertional lesion in the sap structural gene results in elongated chains of bacilli, as observed with a bslO mutant. The chain length of the sap mutant can be reduced by the addition of purified BslO in the culture medium. This complementation in trans can be explained by an increased deposition of BslO onto the surface of sap mutant bacilli that extends beyond chain septa. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observed that the Sap S layer does not overlap the EA1 S layer and slowly yields to the EA1 S layer in a growth-phase-dependent manner. Although present all over bacilli, Sap S-layer patches are not observed at septa. Thus, we propose that the dynamic Sap/EA1 S-layer coverage of the envelope restricts the deposition of BslO to the SCWP at septal rings.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JB.00402-12
View details for Web of Science ID 000306634300008
View details for PubMedID 22609927
Single particle tracking is a powerful technique for investigating the dynamic behavior of biological molecules. However, many of the analytical tools are prone to generate results that can lead to mistaken interpretations of the underlying transport process. Here, we explore the effects of localization error and confinement on the velocity autocorrelation function, C?. We show that calculation of C? across a range of discretizations can distinguish the effects of localization error, confinement, and medium elasticity. Thus, under certain regimes, C? can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusion. Finally, we apply our analysis to experimental data sets of chromosomal loci and RNA-protein particles in Escherichia coli.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bpj.2012.03.062
View details for Web of Science ID 000305003100006
View details for PubMedID 22713559
Chromosomal loci jiggle in place between segregation events in prokaryotic cells and during interphase in eukaryotic nuclei. This motion seems random and is often attributed to brownian motion. However, we show here that locus dynamics in live bacteria and yeast are sensitive to metabolic activity. When ATP synthesis is inhibited, the apparent diffusion coefficient decreases, whereas the subdiffusive scaling exponent remains constant. Furthermore, the magnitude of locus motion increases more steeply with temperature in untreated cells than in ATP-depleted cells. This "superthermal" response suggests that untreated cells have an additional source of molecular agitation, beyond thermal motion, that increases sharply with temperature. Such ATP-dependent fluctuations are likely mechanical, because the heat dissipated from metabolic processes is insufficient to account for the difference in locus motion between untreated and ATP-depleted cells. Our data indicate that ATP-dependent enzymatic activity, in addition to thermal fluctuations, contributes to the molecular agitation driving random (sub)diffusive motion in the living cell.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1119505109
View details for Web of Science ID 000304090600048
View details for PubMedID 22517744
Networks of polymerizing actin filaments can propel intracellular pathogens and drive movement of artificial particles in reconstituted systems. While biochemical mechanisms activating actin network assembly have been well characterized, it remains unclear how particle geometry and large-scale force balance affect emergent properties of movement. We reconstituted actin-based motility using ellipsoidal beads resembling the geometry of Listeria monocytogenes. Beads coated uniformly with the L. monocytogenes ActA protein migrated equally well in either of two distinct orientations, with their long axes parallel or perpendicular to the direction of motion, while intermediate orientations were unstable. When beads were coated with a fluid lipid bilayer rendering ActA laterally mobile, beads predominantly migrated with their long axes parallel to the direction of motion, mimicking the orientation of motile L. monocytogenes. Generating an accurate biophysical model to account for our observations required the combination of elastic-propulsion and tethered-ratchet actin-polymerization theories. Our results indicate that the characteristic orientation of L. monocytogenes must be due to polarized ActA rather than intrinsic actin network forces. Furthermore, viscoelastic stresses, forces, and torques produced by individual actin filaments and lateral movement of molecular complexes must all be incorporated to correctly predict large-scale behavior in the actin-based movement of nonspherical particles.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E11-06-0584
View details for Web of Science ID 000300619500010
View details for PubMedID 22219381
The maintenance of cell shape in Caulobacter crescentus requires the essential gene mreB, which encodes a member of the actin superfamily and the target of the antibiotic, A22. We isolated 35 unique A22-resistant Caulobacter strains with single amino acid substitutions near the nucleotide binding site of MreB. Mutations that alter cell curvature and mislocalize the intermediate filament crescentin cluster on the back surface of MreB's structure. Another subset have variable cell widths, with wide cell bodies and actively growing thin extensions of the cell poles that concentrate fluorescent MreB. We found that the extent to which MreB localization is perturbed is linearly correlated with the development of pointed cell poles and variable cell widths. Further, we find that a mutation to glycine of two conserved aspartic acid residues that are important for nucleotide hydrolysis in other members of the actin superfamily abolishes robust midcell recruitment of MreB but supports a normal rate of growth. These mutant strains provide novel insight into how MreB's protein structure, subcellular localization, and activity contribute to its function in bacterial cell shape.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07698.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000292567200009
View details for PubMedID 21564339
Keratocytes are fast-moving cells in which adhesion dynamics are tightly coupled to the actin polymerization motor that drives migration, resulting in highly coordinated cell movement. We have found that modifying the adhesive properties of the underlying substrate has a dramatic effect on keratocyte morphology. Cells crawling at intermediate adhesion strengths resembled stereotypical keratocytes, characterized by a broad, fan-shaped lamellipodium, clearly defined leading and trailing edges, and persistent rates of protrusion and retraction. Cells at low adhesion strength were small and round with highly variable protrusion and retraction rates, and cells at high adhesion strength were large and asymmetrical and, strikingly, exhibited traveling waves of protrusion. To elucidate the mechanisms by which adhesion strength determines cell behavior, we examined the organization of adhesions, myosin II, and the actin network in keratocytes migrating on substrates with different adhesion strengths. On the whole, our results are consistent with a quantitative physical model in which keratocyte shape and migratory behavior emerge from the self-organization of actin, adhesions, and myosin, and quantitative changes in either adhesion strength or myosin contraction can switch keratocytes among qualitatively distinct migration regimes.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001059
View details for Web of Science ID 000291144800011
View details for PubMedID 21559321
There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod-Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest.
View details for DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-381268-1.00014-8
View details for Web of Science ID 000288227200002
View details for PubMedID 21333788
View details for Web of Science ID 000305505503548
We use Brownian dynamics simulations and analytical theory to investigate the physical principles underlying subdiffusive motion of a polymer. Specifically, we examine the consequences of confinement, self-interaction, viscoelasticity, and random waiting on monomer motion, as these physical phenomena may be relevant to the behavior of biological macromolecules in vivo. We find that neither confinement nor self-interaction alter the fundamental Rouse mode relaxations of a polymer. However, viscoelasticity, modeled by fractional Langevin motion, and random waiting, modeled with a continuous time random walk, lead to significant and distinct deviations from the classic polymer-dynamics model. Our results provide diagnostic tools--the monomer mean square displacement scaling and the velocity autocorrelation function--that can be applied to experimental data to determine the underlying mechanism for subdiffusive motion of a polymer.
View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.011913
View details for Web of Science ID 000280067800007
View details for PubMedID 20866654
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Han and Mizuuchi present evidence for a possible Turing-like reaction-diffusion mechanism underlying target immunity by the bacteriophage Mu.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2010.06.025
View details for Web of Science ID 000280139200001
View details for PubMedID 20603069
Tracking of fluorescently labeled chromosomal loci in live bacterial cells reveals a robust scaling of the mean square displacement (MSD) as ?(0.39). We propose that the observed motion arises from relaxation of the Rouse modes of the DNA polymer within the viscoelastic environment of the cytoplasm. The time-averaged and ensemble-averaged MSD of chromosomal loci exhibit ergodicity, and the velocity autocorrelation function is negative at short time lags. These observations are most consistent with fractional Langevin motion and rule out a continuous time random walk model as an explanation for anomalous motion in vivo.
View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.238102
View details for Web of Science ID 000278493500016
View details for PubMedID 20867274
Crawling locomotion of eukaryotic cells is achieved by a process dependent on the actin cytoskeleton: protrusion of the leading edge requires assembly of a network of actin filaments, which must be disassembled at the cell rear for sustained motility. Although ADF/cofilin proteins have been shown to contribute to actin disassembly, it is not clear how activity of these locally acting proteins could be coordinated over the distance scale of the whole cell. Here we show that non-muscle myosin II has a direct role in actin network disassembly in crawling cells. In fish keratocytes undergoing motility, myosin II is concentrated in regions at the rear with high rates of network disassembly. Activation of myosin II by ATP in detergent-extracted cytoskeletons results in rear-localized disassembly of the actin network. Inhibition of myosin II activity and stabilization of actin filaments synergistically impede cell motility, suggesting the existence of two disassembly pathways, one of which requires myosin II activity. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an enzyme for actin network disassembly; we propose that gradual formation and reorganization of an actomyosin network provides an intrinsic destruction timer, enabling long-range coordination of actin network treadmilling in motile cells.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature08994
View details for Web of Science ID 000277829200046
View details for PubMedID 20485438
Many complex cellular processes from mitosis to cell motility depend on the ability of the cytoskeleton to generate force. Force-generating systems that act on elastic cytoskeletal elements are prone to oscillating instabilities. In this work, we have measured spontaneous shape and movement oscillations in motile fish epithelial keratocytes. In persistently polarized, fan-shaped cells, retraction of the trailing edge on one side of the cell body is out of phase with retraction on the other side, resulting in periodic lateral oscillation of the cell body. We present a physical description of keratocyte oscillation in which periodic retraction of the trailing edge is the result of elastic coupling with the leading edge. Consistent with the predictions of this model, the observed frequency of oscillation correlates with cell speed. In addition, decreasing the strength of adhesion to the substrate reduces the elastic force required for retraction, causing cells to oscillate with higher frequency at relatively lower speeds. These results demonstrate that simple elastic coupling between movement at the front of the cell and movement at the rear can generate large-scale mechanical integration of cell behavior.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bpj.2009.10.058
View details for Web of Science ID 000275842200006
View details for PubMedID 20303850
Cytosolic fluid dynamics have been implicated in cell motility because of the hydrodynamic forces they induce and because of their influence on transport of components of the actin machinery to the leading edge. To investigate the existence and the direction of fluid flow in rapidly moving cells, we introduced inert quantum dots into the lamellipodia of fish epithelial keratocytes and analysed their distribution and motion. Our results indicate that fluid flow is directed from the cell body towards the leading edge in the cell frame of reference, at about 40% of cell speed. We propose that this forward-directed flow is driven by increased hydrostatic pressure generated at the rear of the cell by myosin contraction, and show that inhibition of myosin II activity by blebbistatin reverses the direction of fluid flow and leads to a decrease in keratocyte speed. We present a physical model for fluid pressure and flow in moving cells that quantitatively accounts for our experimental data.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncb1965
View details for Web of Science ID 000270382000011
View details for PubMedID 19767741
Many proteins with vastly dissimilar sequences are found to share a common fold, as evidenced in the wealth of structures now available in the Protein Data Bank. One idea that has found success in various applications is the concept of a reduced amino acid alphabet, wherein similar amino acids are clustered together. Given the structural similarity exhibited by many apparently dissimilar sequences, we undertook this study looking for improvements in fold recognition by comparing protein sequences written in a reduced alphabet.We tested over 150 of the amino acid clustering schemes proposed in the literature with all-versus-all pairwise sequence alignments of sequences in the Distance mAtrix aLIgnment database. We combined several metrics from information retrieval popular in the literature: mean precision, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and recall at a fixed error rate and found that, in contrast to previous work, reduced alphabets in many cases outperform full alphabets. We find that reduced alphabets can perform at a level comparable to full alphabets in correct pairwise alignment of sequences and can show increased sensitivity to pairs of sequences with structural similarity but low-sequence identity. Based on these results, we hypothesize that reduced alphabets may also show performance gains with more sophisticated methods such as profile and pattern searches.A table of results as well as the substitution matrices and residue groupings from this study can be downloaded from (http://www.rpgroup.caltech.edu/publications/supplements/alphabets).
View details for DOI 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp164
View details for Web of Science ID 000266109500003
View details for PubMedID 19351620
Studies of the biochemistry of Listeria monocytogenes virulence protein ActA have typically focused on the behavior of bacteria in complex systems or on the characterization of the protein after expression and purification. Although prior in vivo work has proposed that ActA forms dimers on the surface of L. monocytogenes, dimerization has not been demonstrated in vitro, and little consideration has been given to the surface environment where ActA performs its pivotal role in bacterial actin-based motility. We have synthesized and characterized an ActA dimer and provide evidence that the two ActA molecules do not interact with each other even when tethered together. However, we also demonstrate that artificial dimers provide superior activation of actin nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex compared with monomers and that increased activation of the Arp2/3 complex by dimers may be a general property of Arp2/3 activators. It appears that the close packing ( approximately 19 nm) of ActA molecules on the surface of L. monocytogenes is so dense that the kinetics of actin nucleation mimic that of synthetic ActA dimers. We also present observations indicating that ActA is a natively unfolded protein, largely random coil that is responsible for many of the unique physical properties of ActA including its extended structure, aberrant mobility during SDS-PAGE, and ability to resist irreversible denaturation upon heating.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M803448200
View details for Web of Science ID 000258638900040
View details for PubMedID 18577520
The shape of motile cells is determined by many dynamic processes spanning several orders of magnitude in space and time, from local polymerization of actin monomers at subsecond timescales to global, cell-scale geometry that may persist for hours. Understanding the mechanism of shape determination in cells has proved to be extremely challenging due to the numerous components involved and the complexity of their interactions. Here we harness the natural phenotypic variability in a large population of motile epithelial keratocytes from fish (Hypsophrys nicaraguensis) to reveal mechanisms of shape determination. We find that the cells inhabit a low-dimensional, highly correlated spectrum of possible functional states. We further show that a model of actin network treadmilling in an inextensible membrane bag can quantitatively recapitulate this spectrum and predict both cell shape and speed. Our model provides a simple biochemical and biophysical basis for the observed morphology and behaviour of motile cells.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature06952
View details for Web of Science ID 000256023700033
View details for PubMedID 18497816
We have analyzed the spontaneous symmetry breaking and initiation of actin-based motility in keratocytes (fish epithelial cells). In stationary keratocytes, the actin network flow was inwards and radially symmetric. Immediately before motility initiation, the actin network flow increased at the prospective cell rear and reoriented in the perinuclear region, aligning with the prospective axis of movement. Changes in actin network flow at the cell front were detectable only after cell polarization. Inhibition of myosin II or Rho kinase disrupted actin network organization and flow in the perinuclear region and decreased the motility initiation frequency, whereas increasing myosin II activity with calyculin A increased the motility initiation frequency. Local stimulation of myosin activity in stationary cells by the local application of calyculin A induced directed motility initiation away from the site of stimulation. Together, these results indicate that large-scale actin-myosin network reorganization and contractility at the cell rear initiate spontaneous symmetry breaking and polarized motility of keratocytes.
View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.200706012
View details for Web of Science ID 000249779800010
View details for PubMedID 17893245
Variations in cell migration and morphology are consequences of changes in underlying cytoskeletal organization and dynamics. We investigated how these large-scale cellular events emerge as direct consequences of small-scale cytoskeletal molecular activities. Because the properties of the actin cytoskeleton can be modulated by actin-remodeling proteins, we quantitatively examined how one such family of proteins, enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (Ena/VASP), affects the migration and morphology of epithelial fish keratocytes. Keratocytes generally migrate persistently while exhibiting a characteristic smooth-edged "canoe" shape, but may also exhibit less regular morphologies and less persistent movement. When we observed that the smooth-edged canoe keratocyte morphology correlated with enrichment of Ena/VASP at the leading edge, we mislocalized and overexpressed Ena/VASP proteins and found that this led to changes in the morphology and movement persistence of cells within a population. Thus, local changes in actin filament dynamics due to Ena/VASP activity directly caused changes in cell morphology, which is coupled to the motile behavior of keratocytes. We also characterized the range of natural cell-to-cell variation within a population by using measurable morphological and behavioral features--cell shape, leading-edge shape, filamentous actin (F-actin) distribution, cell speed, and directional persistence--that we have found to correlate with each other to describe a spectrum of coordinated phenotypes based on Ena/VASP enrichment at the leading edge. This spectrum stretched from smooth-edged, canoe-shaped keratocytes--which had VASP highly enriched at their leading edges and migrated fast with straight trajectories--to more irregular, rounder cells migrating slower with less directional persistence and low levels of VASP at their leading edges. We developed a mathematical model that accounts for these coordinated cell-shape and behavior phenotypes as large-scale consequences of kinetic contributions of VASP to actin filament growth and protection from capping at the leading edge. This work shows that the local effects of actin-remodeling proteins on cytoskeletal dynamics and organization can manifest as global modifications of the shape and behavior of migrating cells and that mathematical modeling can elucidate these large-scale cell behaviors from knowledge of detailed multiscale protein interactions.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050233
View details for Web of Science ID 000249552300021
View details for PubMedID 17760506
Morphology is an important large-scale manifestation of the global organizational and physiological state of cells, and is commonly used as a qualitative or quantitative measure of the outcome of various assays. Here we evaluate several different basic representations of cell shape - binary masks, distance maps and polygonal outlines - and different subsequent encodings of those representations - Fourier and Zernike decompositions, and the principal and independent components analyses - to determine which are best at capturing biologically important shape variation. We find that principal components analysis of two-dimensional shapes represented as outlines provide measures of morphology which are quantitative, biologically meaningful, human interpretable and work well across a range of cell types and parameter settings.
View details for Web of Science ID 000248946200007
View details for PubMedID 17845709
The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes propels itself in the cytoplasm of the infected cells by forming a filamentous comet tail assembled by the polymerization of the cytoskeletal protein actin. Although a great deal is known about the molecular processes that lead to actin-based movement, most macroscale aspects of motion, including the nature of the trajectories traced out by the motile bacteria, are not well understood. Here, we present 2D trajectories of Listeria moving between a glass-slide and coverslip in a Xenopus frog egg extract motility assay. We observe that the bacteria move in a number of fascinating geometrical trajectories, including winding S curves, translating figure eights, small- and large-amplitude sine curves, serpentine shapes, circles, and a variety of spirals. We then develop a dynamic model that provides a unified description of these seemingly unrelated trajectories. A key ingredient of the model is a torque (not included in any microscopic models of which we are aware) that arises from the rotation of the propulsive force about the body axis of the bacterium. We show that a large variety of trajectories with a rich mathematical structure are obtained by varying the rate at which the propulsive force moves about the long axis. The trajectories of bacteria executing both steady and saltatory motion are found to be in excellent agreement with the predictions of our dynamic model. When the constraints that lead to planar motion are removed, our model predicts motion along regular helical trajectories, observed in recent experiments.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0702454104
View details for Web of Science ID 000246599900009
View details for PubMedID 17485664
Actin filament polymerization provides the driving force for several kinds of actin-based motility, propelling loads such as the plasma membrane at the leading edge of a crawling cell, an endosomal vesicle, or an intracellular bacterial pathogen. In these systems, branched filament networks continuously grow while simultaneously remaining attached to the load. Previous experiments have suggested an important role in both actin filament nucleation and filament attachment for a family of proteins called nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) that stimulate actin branch formation and nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. A recent report demonstrates that N-WASP, an NPF, uses distinct domains to mediate nucleation and attachment during motility. The surprising details of the biochemical mechanism necessitate reconsideration of the biophysical models proposed for actin-based motility.
View details for DOI 10.1021/cb700071d
View details for Web of Science ID 000245946200014
View details for PubMedID 17455897
Force microscopy techniques including optical trapping, magnetic tweezers, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have facilitated quantification of forces and distances on the molecular scale. However, sensitivity and stability limitations have prevented the application of these techniques to biophysical systems that generate large forces over long times, such as actin filament networks. Growth of actin networks drives cellular shape change and generates nano-Newtons of force over time scales of minutes to hours, and consequently network growth properties have been difficult to study. Here, we present an AFM-based differential force microscope with integrated epifluorescence imaging in which two adjacent cantilevers on the same rigid support are used to provide increased measurement stability. We demonstrate 14 nm displacement control over measurement times of 3 hours and apply the instrument to quantify actin network growth in vitro under controlled loads. By measuring both network length and total network fluorescence simultaneously, we show that the average cross-sectional density of the growing network remains constant under static loads. The differential force microscope presented here provides a sensitive method for quantifying force and displacement with long time-scale stability that is useful for measurements of slow biophysical processes in whole cells or in reconstituted molecular systems in vitro.
View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2727478
View details for Web of Science ID 000246073500032
View details for PubMedID 17477674
Actin filament polymerization generates force for protrusion of the leading edge in motile cells. In protrusive structures, multiple actin filaments are arranged in cross-linked webs (as in lamellipodia or pseudopodia) or parallel bundles (as in filopodia). We have used an optical trap to directly measure the forces generated by elongation of a few parallel-growing actin filaments brought into apposition with a rigid barrier, mimicking the geometry of filopodial protrusion. We find that the growth of approximately eight actin parallel-growing filaments can be stalled by relatively small applied load forces on the order of 1 pN, consistent with the theoretical load required to stall the elongation of a single filament under our conditions. Indeed, large length fluctuations during the stall phase indicate that only the longest actin filament in the bundle is in contact with the barrier at any given time. These results suggest that force generation by small actin bundles is limited by a dynamic instability of single actin filaments, and therefore living cells must use actin-associated factors to suppress this instability to generate substantial forces by elongation of parallel bundles of actin filaments.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0607052104
View details for Web of Science ID 000244438500028
View details for PubMedID 17277076
We present a noniterative image cross-correlation approach to track translation and rotation of crawling cells in time-lapse video microscopy sequences. The method does not rely on extracting features or moments, and therefore does not impose specific requirements on the type of microscopy used for imaging. Here we use phase-contrast images. We calculate cell rotation and translation from one image to the next in two stages. First, rotation is calculated by cross correlating the images' polar-transformed magnitude spectra (Fourier magnitudes). Rotation of the cell about any center in the original images results in translation in this representation. Then, we rotate the first image such that the cell has the same orientation in both images, and cross correlate this image with the second image to calculate translation. By calculating the rotation and translation over each interval in the movie, and thereby tracking the cell's position and orientation in each image, we can then map from the stationary reference frame in which the cell was observed to the cell's moving coordinate system. We describe our modifications enabling application to nonidentical images from video sequences of moving cells, and compare this method's performance with that of a feature extraction method and an iterative optimization method.
View details for DOI 10.1109/TIP.2006.873434
View details for Web of Science ID 000238714200020
View details for PubMedID 16830914
Using fluorescent repressor-operator systems in live cells, we investigated the dynamic behaviour of chromosomal origins in Vibrio cholerae, whose genome is divided between two chromosomes. We have developed a method of analysing fine-scale motion in the curved co-ordinate system of vibrioid bacteria. Using this method, we characterized two different modes of chromosome behaviour corresponding to periods between segregation events and periods of segregation. Between segregation events, the origin positions are not fixed but rather maintained within ellipsoidal caged domains, similar to eukaryotic interphase chromosome territories. These domains are approximately 0.4 microm wide and 0.6 microm long, reflecting greater restriction in the short axis of the cell. During segregation, movement is directionally biased, speed is comparable between origins, and cell growth can account for nearly 20% of the motion observed. Furthermore, the home domain of each origin is positioned by a different mechanism. Specifically, the oriC(I) domain is maintained at a constant actual distance from the pole regardless of cell length, while the oriC(II) domain is maintained at a constant relative position. Thus the actual position of oriC(II) varies with cell length. While the gross behaviours of the two origins are distinct, their fine-scale dynamics are remarkably similar, indicating that both experience similar microenvironments.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05175.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000237423300008
View details for PubMedID 16689793
Infection with Listeria monocytogenes is a significant health problem during pregnancy. This study evaluates the role of trafficking between maternal organs and placenta in a pregnant guinea pig model of listeriosis. After intravenous inoculation of guinea pigs, the initial ratio of bacteria in maternal organs to placenta was 10(3)-10(4):1. Rapid increase of bacteria in the placenta changed the ratio to 1:1 after 24 h. Utilizing two wild-type strains, differentially marked by their susceptibility to erythromycin, we found that only a single bacterium was necessary to cause placental infection, and that L. monocytogenes trafficked from maternal organs to the placenta in small numbers. Surprisingly, bacteria trafficked in large numbers from the placenta to maternal organs. Bacterial growth, clearance, and transport between organs were simulated with a mathematical model showing that the rate of bacterial clearance relative to the rate of bacterial replication in the placenta was sufficient to explain the difference in the course of listeriosis in pregnant versus nonpregnant animals. These results provide the basis for a new model where the placenta is relatively protected from infection. Once colonized, the placenta becomes a nidus of infection resulting in massive reseeding of maternal organs, where L. monocytogenes cannot be cleared until trafficking is interrupted by expulsion of the infected placental tissues.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020066
View details for Web of Science ID 000202894600014
View details for PubMedID 16846254
The polar distribution of the ActA protein on the surface of the Gram-positive intracellular bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, is required for bacterial actin-based motility and successful infection. ActA spans both the bacterial membrane and the peptidoglycan cell wall. We have directly examined the de novo ActA polarization process in vitro by using an ActA-RFP (red fluorescent protein) fusion. After induction of expression, ActA initially appeared at distinct sites along the sides of bacteria and was then redistributed over the entire cylindrical cell body through helical cell wall growth. The accumulation of ActA at the bacterial poles displayed slower kinetics, occurring over several bacterial generations. ActA accumulated more efficiently at younger, less inert poles, and proper polarization required an optimal balance between protein secretion and bacterial growth rates. Within infected host cells, younger generations of L. monocytogenes initiated motility more quickly than older ones, consistent with our in vitro observations of de novo ActA polarization. We propose a model in which the polarization of ActA, and possibly other Gram-positive cell wall-associated proteins, may be a direct consequence of the differential cell wall growth rates along the bacterium and dependent on the relative rates of protein secretion, protein degradation and bacterial growth.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.05025.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000234800600015
View details for PubMedID 16430699
Listeria monocytogenes causes invasive disease by crossing the intestinal epithelial barrier. This process depends on the interaction between the bacterial surface protein Internalin A and the host protein E-cadherin, located below the epithelial tight junctions at the lateral cell-to-cell contacts. We used polarized MDCK cells as a model epithelium to determine how L. monocytogenes breaches the tight junctions to gain access to this basolateral receptor protein. We determined that L. monocytogenes does not actively disrupt the tight junctions, but finds E-cadherin at a morphologically distinct subset of intercellular junctions. We identified these sites as naturally occurring regions where single senescent cells are expelled and detached from the epithelium by extrusion. The surrounding cells reorganize to form a multicellular junction that maintains epithelial continuity. We found that E-cadherin is transiently exposed to the lumenal surface at multicellular junctions during and after cell extrusion, and that L. monocytogenes takes advantage of junctional remodeling to adhere to and subsequently invade the epithelium. In intact epithelial monolayers, an anti-E-cadherin antibody specifically decorates multicellular junctions and blocks L. monocytogenes adhesion. Furthermore, an L. monocytogenes mutant in the Internalin A gene is completely deficient in attachment to the epithelial apical surface and is unable to invade. We hypothesized that L. monocytogenes utilizes analogous extrusion sites for epithelial invasion in vivo. By infecting rabbit ileal loops, we found that the junctions at the cell extrusion zone of villus tips are the specific target for L. monocytogenes adhesion and invasion. Thus, L. monocytogenes exploits the dynamic nature of epithelial renewal and junctional remodeling to breach the intestinal barrier.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020003
View details for Web of Science ID 000202894100004
View details for PubMedID 16446782
The actin homolog MreB contributes to bacterial cell shape. Here, we explore the role of the coexpressed MreC protein in Caulobacter and show that it forms a periplasmic spiral that is out of phase with the cytoplasmic MreB spiral. Both mreB and mreC are essential, and depletion of either protein results in a similar cell shape defect. MreB forms dynamic spirals in MreC-depleted cells, and MreC localizes helically in the presence of the MreB-inhibitor A22, indicating that each protein can form a spiral independently of the other. We show that the peptidoglycan transpeptidase Pbp2 also forms a helical pattern that partially colocalizes with MreC but not MreB. Perturbing either MreB (with A22) or MreC (with depletion) causes GFP-Pbp2 to mislocalize to the division plane, indicating that each is necessary but not sufficient to generate a helical Pbp2 pattern. We show that it is the division process that draws Pbp2 to midcell in the absence of MreB's regulation, because cells depleted of the tubulin homolog FtsZ maintain a helical Pbp2 localization in the presence of A22. By developing and employing a previously uncharacterized computational method for quantitating shape variance, we find that a FtsZ depletion can also partially rescue the A22-induced shape deformation. We conclude that MreB and MreC form spatially distinct and independently localized spirals and propose that MreB inhibits division plane localization of Pbp2, whereas MreC promotes lengthwise localization of Pbp2; together these two mechanism ensure a helical localization of Pbp2 and, thereby, the maintenance of proper cell morphology in Caulobacter.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0507708102
View details for Web of Science ID 000234174300065
View details for PubMedID 16344481
Directional polymerization of actin filaments in branched networks is one of the most powerful force-generating systems in eukaryotic cells. Growth of densely cross-linked actin networks drives cell crawling, intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles, and movement of intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. Using a modified atomic force microscope (AFM), we obtained force-velocity (Fv) measurements of growing actin networks in vitro until network elongation ceased at the stall force. We found that the growth velocity of a branched actin network against increasing forces is load-independent over a wide range of forces before a convex decline to stall. Surprisingly, when force was decreased on a growing network, the velocity increased to a value greater than the previous velocity, such that two or more stable growth velocities can exist at a single load. These results demonstrate that a single Fv relationship does not capture the complete behaviour of this system, unlike other molecular motors in cells, because the growth velocity depends on loading history rather than solely on the instantaneous load.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncb1336
View details for Web of Science ID 000233748900015
View details for PubMedID 16299496
As part of its infectious life cycle, the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes propels itself through the host-cell cytoplasm by triggering the polymerization of host-cell actin near the bacterial surface, harnessing the activity of several cytoskeletal proteins used during actin-based cell crawling. To distinguish among several classes of biophysical models of actin-based bacterial movement, we used a high-throughput tracking technique to record the movement of many individual bacteria during temperature shifts. The speed of each bacterium varied strongly with temperature, closely following the Arrhenius rate law. Among bacteria, the prefactor A of the Arrhenius dependence unexpectedly varied exponentially with apparent activation energy, E(a), over a wide range (8-21 kcal/mol), reminiscent of the "rate compensation effect" of classical catalytic reactions. Average E(a) were increased for mutant bacteria deficient in binding Ena/VASP proteins and bacteria moving in diluted extract. These two effects were additive. The observed temperature and rate compensation effects are consistent with a class of simple kinetic models in which the bacterium advances through the thermally driven, cooperative breakage of groups of adhesive bonds on its surface. The estimated number of coupled adhesive bonds N on the bacterial surface varies between 10 and 40 bonds. In contrast to other models, this model correctly predicts an experimentally observed negative correlation between bacterial speed and actin gel density. The idea that speed depends on adhesion, rather than polymerization, suggests several alternative mechanisms by which known cytoskeletal regulatory proteins could control cellular movement.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0507022102
View details for Web of Science ID 000233283700021
View details for PubMedID 16251274
We have examined the process by which the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes initiates actin-based motility and determined the contribution of the variable surface distribution of the ActA protein to initiation and steady-state movement. To directly correlate ActA distributions to actin dynamics and motility of live bacteria, ActA was fused to a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1). Actin comet tail formation and steady-state bacterial movement rates both depended on ActA distribution, which in turn was tightly coupled to the bacterial cell cycle. Motility initiation was found to be a highly complex, multistep process for bacteria, in contrast to the simple symmetry breaking previously observed for ActA-coated spherical beads. F-actin initially accumulated along the sides of the bacterium and then slowly migrated to the bacterial pole expressing the highest density of ActA as a tail formed. Early movement was highly unstable with extreme changes in speed and frequent stops. Over time, saltatory motility and sensitivity to the immediate environment decreased as bacterial movement became robust at a constant steady-state speed.
View details for DOI 10.1529/biophysj.105.061168
View details for Web of Science ID 000231502800069
View details for PubMedID 15980176
During the actin polymerization-based movement of Listeria monocytogenes, individual bacteria are rapidly propelled through the host cell cytoplasm by the growth of a filamentous actin tail. The rate of propulsion varies significantly among individuals and over time. To study this variation, we used a high-throughput tracking technique to record the movement of a large number (approximately 7900) of bacteria in Xenopus frog egg extract. Most bacteria (70%) appeared to maintain an individual characteristic speed over several minutes, suggesting that the major source of variation in average speed is intrinsic to the bacterium. Thirty percent of bacteria had significant changes in speed over time spans of a few minutes, including 17% that appeared to collide with obstacles and 13% that moved with a significant periodic component. For the latter, the peak frequency was proportional to speed, suggesting a mechanism with a fixed spatial scale of approximately 0.6 bacterial length. Near the rear of the bacterium, temporal fluctuations in actin density were positively correlated with fluctuations in speed, whereas near the front the correlation was negative. A comparison of the performance of linear models that predict motion given actin density suggests that the mechanism has a history of 5-10 s, and that fluctuations in actin density near the front of the bacteria contain more predictive information than the rear. Our results are consistent with physical models where bacterial speed is governed by the rate of dissociation of bonds between the bacterial surface and the actin tail, and individual variation is determined by long-lived intrinsic variability in bacterial surface properties.
View details for DOI 10.1529/biophysj.104.051219
View details for Web of Science ID 000230114500068
View details for PubMedID 15879472
We have found that early in infection of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells expressing actin conjugated to green fluorescent protein, F-actin rapidly assembles (approximately 25 s) and disassembles (approximately 30 s) around the bacteria, a phenomenon we call flashing. L. monocytogenes strains unable to perform actin-based motility or unable to escape the phagosome were capable of flashing, suggesting that the actin assembly occurs on the phagosome membrane. Cycles of actin assembly and disassembly could occur repeatedly on the same phagosome. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that most bacteria were fully internalized when flashing occurred, suggesting that actin flashing does not represent phagocytosis. Escherichia coli expressing invA, a gene product from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis that mediates cellular invasion, also induced flashing. Furthermore, polystyrene beads coated with E-cadherin or transferrin also induced flashing after internalization. This suggests that flashing occurs downstream of several distinct molecular entry mechanisms and may be a general consequence of internalization of large objects by epithelial cells.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E04-06-0509
View details for Web of Science ID 000225372800039
View details for PubMedID 15456901
Advanced techniques for observing protein localization in live bacteria show that the distributions are dynamic. For technical reasons, most such techniques have not been applied to outer membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. We have developed two novel live-cell imaging techniques to observe the surface distribution of LamB, an abundant integral outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli responsible for maltose uptake and for attachment of bacteriophage lambda. Using fluorescently labelled bacteriophage lambda tails, we quantitatively described the spatial distribution and dynamic movement of LamB in the outer membrane. LamB accumulated in spiral patterns. The distribution depended on cell length and changed rapidly. The majority of the protein diffused along spirals extending across the cell body. Tracking single particles, we found that there are two populations of LamB--one shows very restricted diffusion and the other shows greater mobility. The presence of two populations recalls the partitioning of eukaryotic membrane proteins between 'mobile' and 'immobile' populations. In this study, we have demonstrated that LamB moves along the bacterial surface and that these movements are restricted by an underlying dynamic spiral pattern.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2004.04242.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000223662100017
View details for PubMedID 15341654
Directed, purposeful movement is one of the qualities that we most closely associate with living organisms, and essentially all known forms of life on this planet exhibit some type of self-generated movement or motility. Even organisms that remain sessile most of the time, like flowering plants and trees, are quite busy at the cellular level, with large organelles, including chloroplasts, constantly racing around within cellular boundaries. Directed biological movement requires that the cell be able to convert its abundant stores of chemical energy into mechanical energy. Understanding how this mechanochemical energy transduction takes place and understanding how small biological forces generated at the molecular level are marshaled and organized for large-scale cellular or organismal movements are the focus of the field of cell motility. This tutorial, aimed at readers with a background in physical sciences, surveys the state of current knowledge and recent advances in modeling cell motility.
View details for DOI 10.1088/1478-3967/1/1/T01
View details for Web of Science ID 000230645900003
View details for PubMedID 16204816
Intracellular Listeria monocytogenes actin-based motility is characterized by significant individual variability, which can be influenced by cytoarchitecture. L. monocytogenes was used as a probe to transmit information about structural variation among subcellular domains defined by mitochondrial density. By analyzing the movement of a large population of L. monocytogenes in PtK2 cells, we found that mean speed and trajectory curvature were significantly larger for bacteria moving in mitochondria-containing domains (generally perinuclear) than for bacteria moving in mitochondria-free domains (generally peripheral). Analysis of bacteria that traversed both mitochondria-containing and mitochondria-free domains revealed that these motile differences were not intrinsic to bacteria themselves. Disruption of mitochondrial respiration did not affect bacterial mean speed, speed persistence, or trajectory curvature. In contrast, microtubule depolymerization lead to decreased mean speed per bacterium and increased mean speed persistence of L. monocytogenes moving in mitochondria-free domains compared with untreated cells. L. monocytogenes were also observed to physically collide with mitochondria and push them away from the bacterial path of motion, causing bacteria to slow down before rapidly resuming their speed. Our results show that subcellular domains along with microtubule depolymerization may influence the actin cytoskeleton to affect L. monocytogenes speed, speed persistence, and trajectory curvature.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E03-10-0747
View details for Web of Science ID 000221189300011
View details for PubMedID 15004231
Using a biochemically complex cytoplasmic extract to reconstitute actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes and polystyrene beads coated with the bacterial protein ActA, we have systematically varied a series of biophysical parameters and examined their effects on initiation of motility, particle speed, speed variability, and path trajectory. Bead size had a profound effect on all aspects of motility, with increasing size causing slower, straighter movement and inhibiting symmetry-breaking. Speed also was reduced by extract dilution, by addition of methylcellulose, and paradoxically by addition of excess skeletal muscle actin, but it was enhanced by addition of nonmuscle (platelet) actin. Large, persistent individual variations in speed were observed for all conditions and their relative magnitude increased with extract dilution, indicating that persistent alterations in particle surface properties may be responsible for intrinsic speed variations. Trajectory curvature was increased for smaller beads and also for particles moving in the presence of methylcellulose or excess skeletal muscle actin. Symmetry breaking and movement initiation occurred by two distinct modes: either stochastic amplification of local variation for small beads in concentrated extracts, or gradual accumulation of strain in the actin gel for large beads in dilute extracts. Neither mode was sufficient to enable spherical particles to break symmetry in the cytoplasm of living cells.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E03-12-0913
View details for Web of Science ID 000221189300023
View details for PubMedID 15004224
We present a comparative analysis of predicted highly expressed (PHX) genes in the low G+C Gram-positive genomes of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus halodurans, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium acetobutylicum, and Clostridium perfringens. Most enzymes acting in glycolysis and fermentation pathways are PHX in these genomes, but not those involved in the TCA cycle and respiration, suggesting that these organisms have predominantly adapted to grow rapidly in an anaerobic environment. Only B. subtilis and B. halodurans have several TCA cycle PHX genes, whereas the TCA pathway is entirely missing from the metabolic repertoire of the two Streptococcus species and is incomplete in Listeria, Lactococcus, and Clostridium. Pyruvate-formate lyase, an enzyme critical in mixed acid fermentation, is among the highest PHX genes in all these genomes except for C. acetobutylicum (not PHX), and B. subtilis, and B. halodurans (missing). Pyruvate-formate lyase is also prominently PHX in enteric gamma-proteobacteria, but not in other prokaryotes. Phosphotransferase system genes are generally PHX with selection of different substrates in different genomes. The various substrate specificities among phosphotransferase systems in different genomes apparently reflect on differences in habitat, lifestyle, and nutrient sources.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0401504101
View details for Web of Science ID 000220978000090
View details for PubMedID 15069198
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are capable of forming complex intracellular bacterial communities (IBC) within the superficial umbrella cells of the bladders of C3H and BALB/c mice. By using time-lapse fluorescence videomicroscopy to observe infected mouse bladder explants, we discovered that IBCs formed by uropathogenic E. coli progressed through four distinct developmental stages that differed with respect to growth rate, bacterial length, colony organization, motility, and its eventual dispersal. In the first phase, bacteria in the IBC were nonmotile, rod shaped, and grew rapidly in loosely organized colonies free in the cytoplasm of the bladder superficial umbrella cells. In the second phase, the loose collection of bacteria in the IBC matured into a slower growing, highly organized biofilm-like community consisting of coccoid bacteria that ultimately filled most of the cytoplasm. In the third phase, bacteria in the biofilm-like state in the IBC switched to a motile rod-shaped phenotype allowing detachment from the community and eventual fluxing out of the host cell. During the fourth phase, the bacteria filamented. Filamentation appeared to be in response to a Toll-like receptor 4-mediated innate defense mechanism. Bacteria that fluxed out of the superficial umbrella cells were able to reenter the IBC developmental cascade but with slower kinetics and ultimately a quiescent reservoir was established. Intracellular growth and filamentation provided an advantage to the bacteria in evading infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This work has developed a technique to observe live infected organs and revealed a complex differentiation pathway that facilitates bacterial persistence in the urinary tract.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0308125100
View details for Web of Science ID 000188796800043
View details for PubMedID 14739341
Many protein domains involved in cell signaling contain or interact with proline-rich sequences, and the design of molecules that perturb signaling pathways represents a foremost goal of chemical biology. Previously we described a protein design strategy in which the well-folded alpha-helix in avian pancreatic polypeptide (aPP) presents short alpha-helical recognition epitopes. The miniature proteins designed in this way recognize even shallow protein clefts with high affinity and specificity. Here we show that the well-folded type-II polyproline helix in aPP can present the short PPII-helical recognition epitope within the ActA protein of Listeria monocytogenes. Like miniature proteins that use an alpha-helix for protein recognition, the miniature protein designed in this way displays high affinity for a natural ActA target, the EVH1 domain Mena1-112, and achieves the elusive goal of paralog specificity, discriminating well between EVH1 domains Mena1-112, VASP1-115, and Evl1-112. Most importantly, the miniature protein competed with ActA in Xenopus laevis egg cytoplasmic extracts, decreasing actin-dependent motility of L. monocytogenes and causing extreme speed variations and discontinuous tail formation. Our results suggest that miniature proteins based on aPP may represent an excellent framework for the design of ligands that differentiate the roles of EVH1 domains in vitro and in vivo.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja037954k
View details for Web of Science ID 000187945400002
View details for PubMedID 14709031
Crawling cells of various morphologies displace themselves in their biological environments by a similar overall mechanism of protrusion through actin assembly at the front coordinated with retraction at the rear. Different cell types organize very distinct protruding structures, yet they do so through conserved biochemical mechanisms to regulate actin polymerization dynamics and vary the mechanical properties of these structures. The moving cell must spatially and temporally regulate the biochemical interactions of its protein components to exert control over higher-order dynamic structures created by these proteins and global cellular responses four or more orders of magnitude larger in scale and longer in time than the individual protein-protein interactions that comprise them. To fulfill its biological role, a cell globally responds with high sensitivity to a local perturbation or signal and coordinates its many intracellular actin-based functional structures with the physical environment it experiences to produce directed movement. This review attempts to codify some unifying principles for cell motility that span organizational scales from single protein polymer filaments to whole crawling cells.
View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev.biochem.73.011303.073844
View details for Web of Science ID 000223246400007
View details for PubMedID 15189141
The ability to heal superficial wounds is an important element in an organism's repertoire of adaptive responses to environmental stress. In fish, motile cells termed keratocytes are thought to play important roles in the wound-healing process. Keratocyte motility, like other physiological rate processes, is likely to be dependent on temperature and to show adaptive variation among differently thermally adapted species. We have quantified the effects of acute temperature change and thermal acclimation on actin-based keratocyte movement in primary cultures of keratocytes from four species of teleost fish adapted to widely different thermal conditions: two eurythermal species, the longjaw mudsucker Gillichthys mirabilis (environmental temperature range of approximately 10-37 degrees C) and a desert pupfish, Cyprinodon salinus (10-40 degrees C), and two species from stable thermal environments, an Antarctic notothenioid, Trematomus bernacchii (-1.86 degrees C), and a tropical clownfish, Amphiprion percula (26-30 degrees C). For all species, keratocyte speed increased with increasing temperature. G. mirabilis and C. salinus keratocytes reached maximal speeds at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C, respectively, temperatures within the species' normal thermal ranges. Keratocytes of the stenothermal species continued to increase in speed as temperature increased above the species' normal temperature ranges. The thermal limits of keratocyte motility appear to exceed those of whole-organism thermal tolerance, notably in the case of T. bernacchii. Keratocytes of T. bernacchii survived supercooling to -6 degrees C and retained motility at temperatures as high as 20 degrees C. Mean keratocyte speed was conserved at physiological temperatures for the three temperate and tropical species, which suggests that a certain rate of motility is advantageous for wound healing. However, there was no temperature compensation in speed of movement for keratocytes of the Antarctic fish, which have extremely slow rates of movement at physiological temperatures. Keratocytes from all species moved in a persistent, unidirectional manner at low temperatures but at higher temperatures began to take more circular or less-persistent paths. Thermal acclimation affected the persistence and turning magnitude of keratocytes, with warmer acclimations generally yielding more persistent cells that followed straighter paths. However, acclimation did not alter the effect of experimental temperature on cellular speed. These findings suggest that more than one temperature-sensitive mechanism may govern cell motility: the rate-limiting process(es) responsible for speed is distinct from the mechanism(s) underlying directionality and persistence. Keratocytes represent a useful study system for evaluating the effects of temperature at the cellular level and for studying adaptive variation in actin-based cellular movement and capacity for wound healing.
View details for Web of Science ID 000187394300018
View details for PubMedID 14610038
The Listeria monocytogenes surface protein ActA mediates actin-based motility by interacting with a number of host cytoskeletal components, including Ena/VASP family proteins, which in turn interact with actin and the actin-binding protein profilin. We employed a bidirectional genetic approach to study Ena/VASP's contribution to L. monocytogenes movement and pathogenesis. We generated an ActA allelic series within the defined Ena/VASP-binding sites and introduced the resulting mutant L. monocytogenes into cell lines expressing different Ena/VASP derivatives. Our findings indicate that Ena/VASP proteins contribute to the persistence of both speed and directionality of L. monocytogenes movement. In the absence of the Ena/VASP proline-rich central domain, speed consistency decreased by sixfold. In addition, the Ena/VASP F-actin-binding region increased directionality of bacterial movement by fourfold. We further show that both regions of Ena/VASP enhanced L. monocytogenes cell-to-cell spread to a similar degree, although the Ena/VASP F-actin-binding region did so in an ActA-independent manner. Surprisingly, our ActA allelic series enabled us to uncouple L. monocytogenes speed from directionality although both were controlled by Ena/VASP proteins. Lastly, we showed the pathogenic relevance of these findings by the observation that L. monocytogenes lacking ActA Ena/VASP-binding sites were up to 400-fold less virulent during an adaptive immune response.
View details for DOI 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03639.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000185110100017
View details for PubMedID 12940993
Polymerizing networks of actin filaments generate force for a variety of movements in living cells, including protrusion of filopodia and lamellipodia, intra- and intercellular motility of certain bacterial and viral pathogens, and motility of endocytic vesicles and other membrane-bound organelles. During actin-based motility, coexisting populations of actin filaments exert both pushing and retarding forces on the moving cargo. To examine the distribution and magnitude of forces generated by actin, we have developed a model system where large artificial lipid vesicles coated with the protein ActA from the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes are propelled by actin polymerization in cytoplasmic extract. We find that motile vesicles associated with actin comet tails are significantly deformed due to an inward compression force exerted by actin polymerization orthogonal to the direction of motion, which is >10-fold greater in magnitude than the component of the force exerted in the direction of motion. Furthermore, there is a spatial segregation of the pushing and retarding forces, such that pushing predominates along the sides of the vesicle, although retarding forces predominate at the rear. We estimate that the total net (pushing minus retarding) force generated by the actin comet tail is approximately 0.4-4 nN. In addition, actin comet tail formation is associated with polarization of the ActA protein on the fluid vesicle surface, which may reinforce the persistence of unidirectional motion by helping to maintain a persistent asymmetry of actin filament density.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1031670100
View details for Web of Science ID 000183190700038
View details for PubMedID 12738883
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative, intracellular bacterial pathogen found in soil, which occasionally causes serious food-borne disease in humans. The outcome of an infection is dependent on the state of the infected individual's immune system, neutrophils being key players in clearing the microorganism from the body. The first line of host defense, however, is the intestinal epithelium.We have examined the transcriptional response of cultured human intestinal epithelial cells to infection by L. monocytogenes, which replicates in the host cell cytoplasm and spreads from cell to cell using a form of actin-based motility. We found that the predominant host response to infection was mediated by NFkappaB. To determine whether any host responses were due to recognition of specific virulence factors during infection, we also examined the transcriptional response to two bacterial mutants; actA which is defective in actin-based motility, and prfA, which is defective in the expression of all L. monocytogenes virulence genes. Remarkably, we found no detectable difference in the host transcriptional response to the wild-type and mutant bacteria.These results suggest that cultured intestinal epithelial cells are capable of mounting and recruiting a powerful innate immune response to L. monocytogenes infection. Our results imply that L. monocytogenes is not specifically detected in the host cytoplasm of Caco-2 cells by intracellular signals. This suggests that entry of bacteria is mediated in the host cell post-translationally, and that these bacteria seek the cytosol not only for the nutrient-rich environment, but also for protection from detection by the immune system.
View details for Web of Science ID 000182677900007
View details for PubMedID 12537547
A report on the 'Pathogen-host cell interactions' minisymposium at the 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology, Washington DC, USA, 8-12 December 2001.
View details for PubMedID 11897021
The Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein acts as a scaffold to assemble and activate host cell actin cytoskeletal factors at the bacterial surface, resulting in directional actin polymerization and propulsion of the bacterium through the cytoplasm. We have constructed 20 clustered charged-to-alanine mutations in the NH2-terminal domain of ActA and replaced the endogenous actA gene with these molecular variants. These 20 clones were evaluated in several biological assays for phenotypes associated with particular amino acid changes. Additionally, each protein variant was purified and tested for stimulation of the Arp2/3 complex, and a subset was tested for actin monomer binding. These specific mutations refined the two regions involved in Arp2/3 activation and suggest that the actin-binding sequence of ActA spans 40 amino acids. We also identified a 'motility rate and cloud-to-tail transition' region in which nine contiguous mutations spanning amino acids 165-260 caused motility rate defects and changed the ratio of intracellular bacteria associated with actin clouds and comet tails without affecting Arp2/3 activation. Several unusual motility phenotypes were associated with amino acid changes in this region, including altered paths through the cytoplasm, discontinuous actin tails in host cells and the tendency to 'skid' or dramatically change direction while moving. These unusual phenotypes illustrate the complexity of ActA functions that control the actin-based motility of L. monocytogenes.
View details for Web of Science ID 000172812700002
View details for PubMedID 11886549
How does subcellular architecture influence the intracellular movements of large organelles and macromolecular assemblies? To investigate the effects of mechanical changes in cytoplasmic structure on intracellular motility, we have characterized the actin-based motility of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in normal mouse fibroblasts and in fibroblasts lacking intermediate filaments. The apparent diffusion coefficient of L. monocytogenes was two-fold greater in vimentin-null fibroblasts than in wild-type fibroblasts, indicating that intermediate filaments significantly restrict the Brownian motion of bacteria. However, the mean speed of L. monocytogenes actin-based motility was statistically identical in vimentin-null and wild-type cells. Thus, environmental drag is not rate limiting for bacterial motility. Analysis of the temporal variations in speed measurements indicated that bacteria in vimentin-null cells displayed larger fluctuations in speed than did trajectories in wild-type cells. Similarly, the presence of the vimentin meshwork influenced the turning behavior of the bacteria; in the vimentin-null cells, bacteria made sharper turns than they did in wild-type cells. Taken together, these results suggest that a network of intermediate filaments constrains bacterial movement and operates over distances of several microns to reduce fluctuations in motile behavior.
View details for Web of Science ID 000172407800016
View details for PubMedID 11720985
Shigella flexneri replicates in the cytoplasm of host cells, where it nucleates host cell actin filaments at one pole of the bacterial cell to form a 'comet tail' that propels the bacterium through the host's cytoplasm. To determine whether the ability to move by actin-based motility is sufficient for subsequent formation of membrane-bound protrusions and intercellular spread, we conferred the ability to nucleate actin on a heterologous bacterium, Escherichia coli. Previous work has shown that IcsA (VirG), the molecule that is necessary and sufficient for actin nucleation and actin-based motility, is distributed in a unipolar fashion on the surface of S. flexneri. Maintenance of the unipolar distribution of IcsA depends on both the S. flexneri outer membrane protease IcsP (SopA) and the structure of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer membrane. We co-expressed IcsA and IcsP in two strains of E. coli that differed in their LPS structures. The E. coli were engineered to invade host cells by expression of invasin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and to escape the phagosome by incubation in purified listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes. All E. coli strains expressing IcsA replicated in host cell cytoplasm and moved by actin-based motility. Actin-based motility alone was sufficient for the formation of membrane protrusions and uptake by recipient host cells. The presence of IcsP and an elaborate LPS structure combined to enhance the ability of E. coli to form protrusions at the same frequency as S. flexneri, quantitatively reconstituting this step in pathogen intercellular spread in a heterologous organism. The frequency of membrane protrusion formation across all strains tested correlates with the efficiency of unidirectional actin-based movement, but not with bacterial speed.
View details for Web of Science ID 000171021200006
View details for PubMedID 11553015
The generation and maintenance of subcellular organization in bacteria is critical for many cell processes and properties, including growth, structural integrity and, in pathogens, virulence. Here, we investigate the mechanisms by which the virulence protein IcsA (VirG) is distributed on the bacterial surface to promote efficient transmission of the bacterium Shigella flexneri from one host cell to another. The outer membrane protein IcsA recruits host factors that result in actin filament nucleation and, when concentrated at one bacterial pole, promote unidirectional actin-based motility of the pathogen. We show here that the focused polar gradient of IcsA is generated by its delivery exclusively to one pole followed by lateral diffusion through the outer membrane. The resulting gradient can be modified by altering the composition of the outer membrane either genetically or pharmacologically. The gradient can be reshaped further by the action of the protease IcsP (SopA), whose activity we show to be near uniform on the bacterial surface. Further, we report polar delivery of IcsA in Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, suggesting that the mechanism for polar delivery of some outer membrane proteins is conserved across species and that the virulence function of IcsA capitalizes on a more global mechanism for subcellular organization.
View details for Web of Science ID 000170904400008
View details for PubMedID 11532149
Polymerization of actin filaments is necessary for both protrusion of the leading edge of crawling cells and propulsion of certain intracellular pathogens, and it is sufficient for generating force for bacterial motility in vitro. Motile intracellular pathogens are associated with actin-rich comet tails containing many of the same molecular components present in lamellipodia, and this suggests that these two systems use a similar mechanism for motility. However, available structural evidence suggests that the organization of comet tails differs from that of lamellipodia. Actin filaments in lamellipodia form branched arrays, which are thought to arise by dendritic nucleation mediated by the Arp2/3 complex. In contrast, comet tails have been variously described as consisting of short, randomly oriented filaments, with a higher degree of alignment at the periphery, or as containing long, straight axial filaments with a small number of oblique filaments. Because the assembly of pathogen-associated comet tails has been used as a model system for lamellipodial protrusion, it is important to resolve this apparent discrepancy. Here, using a platinum replica approach, we show that actin filament arrays in comet tails in fact have a dendritic organization with the Arp2/3 complex localizing to Y-junctions as in lamellipodia. Thus, comet tails and lamellipodia appear to share a common dendritic nucleation mechanism for protrusive motility. However, comet tails differ from lamellipodia in that their actin filaments are usually twisted and appear to be under significant torsional stress.
View details for Web of Science ID 000169076200024
View details for PubMedID 11231131
Actin-based cell motility is a complex process involving a dynamic, self-organizing cellular system. Experimental problems initially limited our understanding of this type of motility, but the use of a model system derived from a bacterial pathogen has led to a breakthrough. Now, all the molecular components necessary for dynamic actin self-organization and motility have been identified, setting the stage for future mechanistic studies.
View details for Web of Science ID 000165765300015
View details for PubMedID 11253363
Polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments and microtubules are thought to generate force for movement in various kinds of cell motility, ranging from lamellipodial protrusion to chromosome segregation. This article reviews the thermodynamic and physical theories of how a nonequilibrium polymerization reaction can be used to transduce chemical energy into mechanical energy, and summarizes the evidence suggesting that actin polymerization produces motile force in several biological systems.
View details for Web of Science ID 000087705900004
View details for PubMedID 11208055
Polymerizing networks of actin filaments are capable of exerting significant mechanical forces, used by eukaryotic cells and their prokaryotic pathogens to change shape or to move. Here we show that small beads coated uniformly with a protein that catalyses actin polymerization are initially surrounded by symmetrical clouds of actin filaments. This symmetry is broken spontaneously, after which the beads undergo directional motion. We have developed a stochastic theory, in which each actin filament is modelled as an elastic brownian ratchet, that quantitatively accounts for the observed emergent symmetry-breaking behaviour. Symmetry-breaking can only occur for polymers that have a significant subunit off-rate, such as the biopolymers actin and tubulin.
View details for Web of Science ID 000084136100017
View details for PubMedID 10587645
The bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, grows in the cytoplasm of host cells and spreads intercellularly using a form of actin-based motility mediated by the bacterial protein ActA. Tightly adherent monolayers of MDCK cells that constitutively express GFP-actin were infected with L. monocytogenes, and intercellular spread of bacteria was observed by video microscopy. The probability of formation of membrane-bound protrusions containing bacteria decreased with host cell monolayer age and the establishment of extensive cell-cell contacts. After their extension into a recipient cell, intercellular membrane-bound protrusions underwent a period of bacterium-dependent fitful movement, followed by their collapse into a vacuole and rapid vacuolar lysis. Actin filaments in protrusions exhibited decreased turnover rates compared with bacterially associated cytoplasmic actin comet tails. Recovery of motility in the recipient cell required 1-2 bacterial generations. This delay may be explained by acid-dependent cleavage of ActA by the bacterial metalloprotease, Mpl. Importantly, we have observed that low levels of endocytosis of neighboring MDCK cell surface fragments occurs in the absence of bacteria, implying that intercellular spread of bacteria may exploit an endogenous process of paracytophagy.
View details for Web of Science ID 000082765400011
View details for PubMedID 10491395
Actin polymerization is required for the generation of motile force at the leading edge of both lamellipodia and filopodia and also at the surface of motile intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. Local catalysis of actin filament polymerization is accomplished in L. monocytogenes by the bacterial protein ActA. Polystyrene beads coated with purified ActA protein can undergo directional movement in an actin-rich cytoplasmic extract. Thus, the actin polymerization-based motility generated by ActA can be used to move nonbiological cargo, as has been demonstrated for classical motor molecules such as kinesin and myosin. Initiation of unidirectional movement of a symmetrically coated particle is a function of bead size and surface protein density. Small beads (=0.5 micrometer in diameter) initiate actin-based motility when local asymmetries are built up by random fluctuations of actin filament density or by thermal motion, demonstrating the inherent ability of the dynamic actin cytoskeleton to spontaneously self-organize into a polar structure capable of generating unidirectional force. Larger beads (up to 2 micrometers in diameter) can initiate movement only if surface asymmetry is introduced by coating the beads on one hemisphere. This explains why the relatively large L. monocytogenes requires polar distribution of ActA on its surface to move.
View details for Web of Science ID 000080130200034
View details for PubMedID 10220392
Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative bacterium that causes diarrhea and dysentery by invasion and spread through the colonic epithelium. Bacteria spread by assembling actin and other cytoskeletal proteins of the host into "actin tails" at the bacterial pole; actin tail assembly provides the force required to move bacteria through the cell cytoplasm and into adjacent cells. The 120-kDa S. flexneri outer membrane protein IcsA is essential for actin assembly. IcsA is anchored in the outer membrane by a carboxy-terminal domain (the beta domain), such that the amino-terminal 706 amino acid residues (the alpha domain) are exposed on the exterior of the bacillus. The alpha domain is therefore likely to contain the domains that are important to interactions with host factors. We identify and characterize a domain of IcsA within the alpha domain that bears significant sequence similarity to two repeated domains of rickettsial OmpA, which has been implicated in rickettsial actin tail formation. Strains of S. flexneri and Escherichia coli that carry derivatives of IcsA containing deletions within this domain display loss of actin recruitment and increased accessibility to IcsA-specific antibody on the surface of intracytoplasmic bacteria. However, site-directed mutagenesis of charged residues within this domain results in actin assembly that is indistinguishable from that of the wild type, and in vitro competition of a polypeptide of this domain fused to glutathione S-transferase did not alter the motility of the wild-type construct. Taken together, our data suggest that the rickettsial homology domain of IcsA is required for the proper conformation of IcsA and that its disruption leads to loss of interactions of other IcsA domains within the amino terminus with host cytoskeletal proteins.
View details for Web of Science ID 000078390600022
View details for PubMedID 9922250
Recent advances in optical imaging have dramatically expanded the capabilities of the light microscope and its usefulness in microbiology research. Some of these advances include improved fluorescent probes, better cameras, new techniques such as confocal and deconvolution microscopy, and the use of computers in imaging and image analysis. These new technologies have now been applied to microbiological problems with resounding success.
View details for Web of Science ID 000075765200013
View details for PubMedID 10066497
View details for PubMedID 9661145
View details for PubMedID 9009182
The ActA protein is responsible for the actin-based movement of Listeria monocytogenes in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Analysis of mutants in which we varied the number of proline-rich repeats (PRR; consensus sequence DFPPPPTDEEL) revealed a linear relationship between the number of PRRs and the rate of movement, with each repeat contributing approximately 2-3 microns/min. Mutants lacking all functional PRRs (generated by deletion or point mutation) moved at rates 30% of wild-type. Indirect immunofluorescence indicated that the PRRs were directly responsible for binding of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and for the localization of profilin at the bacterial surface. The long repeats, which are interdigitated between the PRRs, increased the frequency with which actin-based motility occurred by a mechanism independent of the PRRs, VASP, and profilin. Lastly, a mutant which expressed low levels of ActA exhibited a phenotype indicative of a threshold; there was a very low percentage of moving bacteria, but when movement did occur, it was at wild-type rates. These results indicate that the ActA protein directs at least three separable events: (1) initiation of actin polymerization that is independent of the repeat region; (2) initiation of movement dependent on the long repeats and the amount of ActA; and (3) movement rate dependent on the PRRs.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VR26800009
View details for PubMedID 8909540
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracytoplasmic bacterial pathogen that exhibits rapid actin-based motility in eukaryotic cells and in cell-free cytoplasmic extracts. The protein product of the actA gene is required for bacterial movement and is normally expressed in a polarized fashion on the bacterial surface. Here we demonstrate that the ActA protein is sufficient to direct motility in the absence of other L. monocytogenes gene products, and that polarized localization of the protein is required for efficient unidirectional movement. We have engineered a fusion protein combining ActA with the C-terminal domain of the LytA protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae, which mediates high-affinity binding to DEAE-cellulose and to choline moieties present in the S. pneumoniae cell wall. DEAE-cellulose fragments or S. pneumoniae coated uniformly with the ActA/LytA fusion protein nucleate actin filament growth in cytoplasmic extracts, but do not move efficiently. However, when ActA/LytA-coated S. pneumoniae is grown to polarize the distribution of the fusion protein, the bacteria exhibit unidirectional actin-based movement similar to the normal movement of L. monocytogenes.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995RZ99400014
View details for PubMedID 8596443
Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that can grow directly in the cytoplasm of infected host cells and uses a form of actin-based motility for intra- and intercellular spread. Moving intracellular bacteria are associated with a polarized "comet tail" composed of actin filaments. IcsA, a 120-kDa outer membrane protein necessary for actin-based motility, is located at a single pole on the surface of the organism, at the junction with the actin tail. Here, we demonstrate that stable expression of IcsA on the surface of Escherichia coli is sufficient to allow actin-dependent movement of E. coli in cytoplasmic extracts, at rates comparable to the movement of S. flexneri in infected cells. Thus, IcsA is the sole Shigella-specific factor required for actin-based motility. Continuous protein synthesis and polarized distribution of the protein are not necessary for actin tail formation or movement. Listeria monocytogenes is an unrelated bacterial pathogen that exhibits similar actin-based intracytoplasmic motility. Actin filament dynamics in the comet tails associated with the two different organisms are essentially identical, which indicates that they have independently evolved mechanisms to interact with the same components of the host cytoskeleton.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995RG73600073
View details for PubMedID 7604035
Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri are unrelated bacterial pathogens that have independently evolved similar strategies of survival within an infected host animal. Bacteria coming into contact with the surface of an epithelial cell induce cytoskeletal rearrangements resulting in phagocytosis. They then secrete enzymes that degrade the phagosomal membrane, releasing the bacteria into the host cytoplasm. Intracytoplasmic bacteria move rapidly, in association with a "comet tail" made up of host cell actin filaments. When moving bacteria reach the cell margin, they push out long protrusions with the bacteria at the tips that are then taken up by neighboring cells, allowing the infection to spread from cell to cell. This review summarizes what is currently known about the interactions between the bacteria and the host at each stage of the infection and discusses what mammalian cell biologists can learn by studying bacterial pathogens.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995TY44800009
View details for PubMedID 8689557
After lysing the phagocytic vacuole, Shigella spp. accumulate filaments of polymerized actin on their surface at one pole, leading to the formation of actin tails that enable them to move through the cytoplasm. We have recently demonstrated that the Shigella protein IcsA is located at the pole that is adjacent to the growing end of the actin tail (M. B. Goldberg, O. Barzu, C. Parsot, and P. J. Sansonetti, J. Bacteriol. 175:2189-2196, 1993). Not every bacterium that is observed within the cytoplasm has an actin tail. The factors that determine when a bacterium will form a tail are unknown. Here we demonstrate that at the moment of initiation of movement, Shigella spp. are frequently in the process of division. Furthermore, the expression of IcsA on the surface of the bacteria occurs in a growth phase-dependent fashion, suggesting that the surface expression of IcsA per se determines the observed association of bacterial division with movement.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994PT32900063
View details for PubMedID 7960150
The dynamic behavior of pure actin in vitro is more complex than that of most simple polymers, due to the energy input from the irreversible nucleotide hydrolysis associated with polymerization. However, the dynamic behavior of actin is vastly more complicated inside cells, where dozens of different types of actin-binding proteins alter every rate constant for actin polymerization and the chemical environment is inhomogeneous both temporally and spatially. Actin dynamics in cells are tightly regulated, so that rapid filament polymerization can occur in response to external signals or at the front of an active lamellipodium, while rapid depolymerization occurs simultaneously elsewhere in the cell. Although more direct observations of actin dynamics in vivo are accumulating, it is not yet clear how to reconcile the behavior of actin in cells with its well-documented in vitro properties.
View details for PubMedID 7919233
We describe the production and analysis of clonal cell lines in which we have overexpressed human profilin, a small ubiquitous actin monomer binding protein, to assess the role of profilin on actin function in vivo. The concentration of filamentous actin is increased in cells with higher profilin levels, and actin filament half-life measured in these cells is directly proportional to the steady-state profilin concentration. The distribution of actin filaments is altered by profilin overexpression. While parallel actin bundles crossing the cells are virtually absent in cells overexpressing profilin, the submembranous actin network of these cells is denser than in control cells. These results suggest that in vivo profilin regulates the stability, and thereby distribution, of specific dynamic actin structures.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994MX21000067
View details for PubMedID 8108438
Within hours of Listeria monocytogenes infection, host cell actin filaments form a dense cloud around the intracytoplasmic bacteria and then rearrange to form a polarized comet tail that is associated with moving bacteria. We have devised a cell-free extract system capable of faithfully reconstituting L. monocytogenes motility, and we have used this system to demonstrate that profilin, a host actin monomer-binding protein, is necessary for bacterial actin-based motility. We find that extracts from which profilin has been depleted do not support comet tail formation or bacterial motility. In extracts and host cells, profilin is localized to the back half of the surface of motile L. monocytogenes, the site of actin filament assembly in the tail. This association is not observed with L. monocytogenes mutants that do not express the ActA protein, a bacterial gene product necessary for motility and virulence. Profilin also fails to bind L. monocytogenes grown outside of host cytoplasm, suggesting that at least one other host cell factor is required for this association.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994MX20700011
View details for PubMedID 8313471
Force arising from actin polymerization and myosin activity drives a number of different actin-based cell movements. Several new reports support previous data suggesting that actin polymerization drives lamellipodial protrusion and bacterial propulsion, and one report describes a more indirect role for actin assembly in axonal elongation. The major new findings of the past year concerning possible motility roles for myosin describe myosin-driven protrusion of cell margins.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NF80000013
View details for PubMedID 8167030
Movement of Listeria monocytogenes within infected eukaryotic cells provides a simple model system to study the mechanism of actin-based motility in nonmuscle cells. The actA gene of L. monocytogenes is required to induce the polymerization of host actin filaments [Kocks, C., Gouin, E., Tabouret, M., Berche, P., Ohayon, H. & Cossart, P. (1990) Cell 68, 521-531; Domann, E., Wehland, J., Rohde, M., Pistor, S., Hartl, M., Goebel, W., Leimeister-Wachter, M., Wuenscher, M. & Chakraborty, T. (1992) EMBO J. 11, 1981-1990]. In this study, an in-frame deletion mutation within the actA gene was constructed and introduced into the L. monocytogenes chromosome by allelic exchange. This mutation resulted in a decrease (3 orders of magnitude) in virulence for mice. In tissue culture cells, the actA mutant was absolutely defective for the nucleation of actin filaments and consequently was impaired in cell-to-cell spread. Antiserum raised to a synthetic peptide encompassing the proline-rich repeat (DFPPPPTDEEL) of ActA was used to characterize the expression of the ActA protein. The ActA protein derived from extracellular bacteria migrated as a 97-kDa polypeptide upon SDS/PAGE, whereas the protein from infected cells migrated as three distinct polypeptides, one that comigrated with the 97-kDa extracellular form and two slightly larger species. Treatment of infected cells with okadaic acid resulted in decreased amounts of all forms of ActA and the appearance of a larger species of ActA. Phosphatase treatment of ActA immunoprecipitated from intracellular bacteria resulted in conversion of the larger two species to the 97-kDa form. Labeling of infected cells with 32Pi followed by immunoprecipitation showed that the largest molecular form of ActA was phosphorylated. Taken together, these data indicate that ActA is phosphorylated during intracellular growth. The significance of the intracellular modification of ActA is not known, but we speculate that it may modulate the intracellular activity of ActA.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993MM51500093
View details for PubMedID 8265643
Moving cells display a variety of shapes and modes of locomotion, but it is not clear how motility at the molecular level relates to the locomotion of a whole cell, a problem compounded in studies of cells with complex shapes. A striking feature of fish epidermal keratocyte locomotion is its apparent simplicity. Here we present a kinematic description of locomotion which is consistent with the semicircular shape and persistent 'gliding' motion of fish epidermal keratocytes. We propose that extension of the front and retraction of the rear of these cells occurs perpendicularly to the cell edge, and that a graded distribution of extension and retraction rates along the cell margin maintains cell shape and size during locomotion. Evidence for this description is provided by the predicted circumferential motion of lamellar features and the curvature of 'photo-marked' lines within specific molecular components of moving keratocytes. Our description relates the dynamics of molecular assemblies to the movement of a whole cell.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993KR02800063
View details for PubMedID 8450887
View details for PubMedID 15336017
We have investigated the dynamic behavior of actin in fibroblast lamellipodia using photoactivation of fluorescence. Activated regions of caged resorufin (CR)-labeled actin in lamellipodia of IMR 90 and MC7 3T3 fibroblasts were observed to move centripetally over time. Thus in these cells, actin filaments move centripetally relative to the substrate. Rates were characteristic for each cell type; 0.66 +/- 0.27 microns/min in IMR 90 and 0.36 +/- 0.16 microns/min in MC7 3T3 cells. In neither case was there any correlation between the rate of actin movement and the rate of lamellipodial protrusion. The half-life of the activated CR-actin filaments was approximately 1 min in IMR 90 lamellipodia, and approximately 3 min in MC7 3T3 lamellipodia. Thus continuous filament turnover accompanies centripetal movement. In both cell types, the length of time required for a section of the actin meshwork to traverse the lamellipodium was several times longer than the filament half-life. The dynamic behavior of the dorsal surface of the cell was also observed by tracking lectin-coated beads on the surface and phase-dense features within lamellipodia of MC7 3T3 cells. The movement of these dorsal features occurred at rates approximately three times faster than the rate of movement of the underlying bulk actin cytoskeleton, even when measured in the same individual cells. Thus the transport of these dorsal features must occur by some mechanism other than simple attachment to the moving bulk actin cytoskeleton.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JT98100011
View details for PubMedID 1400580
The actin cytoskeleton is intimately involved in the motile behaviour of animal cells. The structure and dynamic behaviour of actin and its binding proteins have been intensively studied in vitro over the past several decades, culminating in achievements such as an atomic model of the actin filament. Despite this progress, it is not yet clear how the behaviour of these purified proteins in vitro relates to the dynamic behaviour of actin inside living, moving cells. Here we discuss a new model that relates the known dynamic parameters for pure actin to the observed behaviour of actin filaments inside motile cells.
View details for PubMedID 14731477
The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of rapid movement through the host cell cytoplasm. The biophysical basis of the motility of L. monocytogenes is an interesting question in its own right, the answer to which may shed light on the general processes of actin-based motility in cells. Moving intracellular bacteria display phase-dense 'comet tails' made of actin filaments, the formation of which is required for bacterial motility. We have investigated the dynamics of the actin filaments in the comet tails using the technique of photoactivation of fluorescence, which allows monitoring of the movement and turnover of labelled actin filaments after activation by illumination with ultraviolet light. We find that the actin filaments remain stationary in the cytoplasm as the bacterium moves forward, and that length of the comet tails is linearly proportional to the rate of movement. Our results imply that the motile mechanism involves continuous polymerization and release of actin filaments at the bacterial surface and that the rate of filament generation is related to the rate of movement. We suggest that actin polymerization provides the driving force for bacterial propulsion.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992HV19500060
View details for PubMedID 1589024
The dynamic behaviour of actin filaments has been directly observed in living, motile cells using fluorescence photoactivation. In goldfish epithelial keratocytes, the actin microfilaments in the lamellipodium remain approximately fixed relative to the substrate as the cell moves over them, regardless of cell speed. The rate of turnover of actin subunits in the lamellipodium is remarkably rapid. Cell movement is directly and tightly coupled to the formation of new actin filaments at the leading edge.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991FW09700045
View details for PubMedID 2067574
The postsynaptic membrane of vertebrate neuromuscular synapses is enriched in the four subunits of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and in a peripheral membrane protein of Mr = 43 x 10(3) (43K). Although AChRs are virtually restricted to the postsynaptic membrane of innervated adult muscle, developing and denervated adult muscle contain AChRs at nonsynaptic regions. These nonsynaptic AChRs accumulate because the level of mRNA encoding AChR subunits increases in response to a loss of muscle cell electrical activity. We have determined the level of mRNA encoding the 43K subsynaptic protein in developing muscle and in innervated and denervated adult muscle. We isolated a cDNA that encodes the entire protein-coding region of the 43K subsynaptic protein from Torpedo electric organ and used this cDNA to isolate a cDNA that encodes the 43K subsynaptic protein from Xenopus laevis. We used the Xenopus cDNA to measure the level of transcript encoding the 43K protein in embryonic muscle and in innervated and denervated adult muscle by RNase protection. The level of transcript encoding the 43K protein is low in innervated adult muscle and increases 25- to 30-fold after denervation. The level of transcript encoding the alpha subunit of the AChR increases to a similar extent after denervation. Moreover, during development, transcripts encoding the 43K protein and the alpha subunit are expressed initially at late gastrula and are present in similar quantities in embryonic muscle. These results demonstrate that transcripts encoding the 43K protein and AChR subunits appear coordinately during embryonic development and that the level of mRNA encoding the 43K protein is regulated by denervation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988R618300005
View details for PubMedID 3077352
Acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes from the electric organ of Torpedo californica are enriched in the four different subunits of the acetylcholine receptor and in two peripheral membrane proteins at 43 and 300 kD. We produced monoclonal antibodies against the 300-kD protein and have used these antibodies to determine the location of the protein, both in the electric organ and in skeletal muscle. Antibodies to the 300-kD protein were characterized by Western blots, binding assays to isolated membranes, and immunofluorescence on tissue. In Torpedo electric organ, antibodies to the 300-kD protein stain only the innervated face of the electrocytes. The 300-kD protein is on the intracellular surface of the postsynaptic membrane, since antibodies to the 300-kD protein bind more efficiently to saponin-permeabilized, right side out membranes than to intact membranes. Some antibodies against the Torpedo 300-kD protein cross-react with amphibian and mammalian neuromuscular synapses, and the cross-reacting protein is also highly concentrated on the intracellular surface of the post-synaptic membrane.
View details for Web of Science ID A1987G733400016
View details for PubMedID 3558487