Doctor of Philosophy, Medical College Of Georgia (2012)
Master of Science, Nanjing Medical University (2006)
Bachelor of Medicine, Nanjing Medical University (2003)
Inflammation and vascular remodeling
The loss of a functional microvascular bed in rejecting solid organ transplants is correlated with fibrotic remodeling and chronic rejection; in lung allografts, this pathology is predicted by bronchoalveolar fluid neutrophilia which suggests a role for polymorphonuclear cells in microcirculatory injury. In a mouse orthotopic tracheal transplant model, cyclosporine, which primarily inhibits T cells, failed as a monotherapy for preventing microvessel rejection and graft ischemia. To target neutrophil action that may be contributing to vascular injury, we examined the effect of a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, elafin, on the microvascular health of transplant tissue. We showed that elafin monotherapy prolonged microvascular perfusion and enhanced tissue oxygenation while diminishing the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and decreasing tissue deposition of complement C3 and the membrane attack complex, C5b-9. Elafin was also found to promote angiogenesis through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway but was insufficient as a single agent to completely prevent tissue ischemia during acute rejection episodes. However, when combined with cyclosporine, elafin effectively preserved airway microvascular perfusion and oxygenation. The therapeutic strategy of targeting neutrophil elastase activity alongside standard immunosuppression during acute rejection episodes may be an effective approach for preventing the development of irreversible fibrotic remodeling.
View details for DOI 10.1111/ajt.13189
View details for Web of Science ID 000356494300013
Alloimmune inflammation damages the microvasculature of solid organ transplants during acute rejection. Although immunosuppressive drugs diminish the inflammatory response, they do not directly promote vascular repair. Repetitive microvascular injury with insufficient regeneration results in prolonged tissue hypoxia and fibrotic remodeling. While clinical studies show that a loss of the microvascular circulation precedes and may act as an initiating factor for the development of chronic rejection, preclinical studies demonstrate that improved microvascular perfusion during acute rejection delays and attenuates tissue fibrosis. Therefore, preservation of a functional microvasculature may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for preventing chronic rejection. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the role of the microvasculature in the long-term survival of transplanted solid organs. We also highlight microvessel-centered therapeutic strategies for prolonging the survival of solid organ transplants.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00109-014-1173-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000339975500002
Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators derived from the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism and are markers and mediators of pulmonary inflammation. Research over the past two decades has established that LTs modulate inflammation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The purpose of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of LTs in the pathophysiology of PAH and to highlight a recent study that advances our understanding of how leukotriene B4 (LTB4) specifically contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling. The results of these studies suggest that pharmacological inhibition of LT pathways, especially LTB4, has high potential for the treatment of PAH.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12026-014-8492-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000336333700026
Macrophages are highly plastic hematopoietic cells with diversified functions related to their anatomic location and differentiation states. A number of recent studies have examined the role of macrophages in solid organ transplantation. These studies show that macrophages can induce allograft injury but, conversely, can also promote tissue repair in ischemia-reperfusion injury and acute rejection. Therapeutic strategies that target macrophages to improve outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients are being examined in preclinical and clinical models. In this review, we discuss the role of macrophages in different types of injury and rejection, with a focus on macrophage-mediated tissue injury, specifically vascular injury, repair and remodeling. We also discuss emerging macrophage-centered therapeutic opportunities in solid organ transplantation.
View details for DOI 10.1186/2045-824X-6-5
View details for PubMedID 24612731
View details for Web of Science ID 000323705100010