Clinical Focus

  • Pelvic Pain
  • Interstitial Cystitis
  • Painful Bladder Syndrome
  • Perioperative Pain Management
  • Anesthesiology

Academic Appointments

  • Instructor, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: Anesthesiology, American Board of Anesthesiology (2010)
  • Fellowship:Stanford University Hospital - Pain Medicine (2010) CA
  • Residency:Stanford University Hospital - Anesthesia Dept (2009) CA
  • Residency:Cleveland Clinic Foundation (2007) OH
  • Internship:Cleveland Clinic Foundation (2007) OH
  • M.S., Stanford University, Epidemiology (2013)
  • Board Certification: Pain Medicine, American Board of Anesthesiology (2011)
  • Medical Education:Northeastern Ohio Universities (2005) OH

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Perioperative Recovery of Opioids Mood and Pain Trial

Clinical Trials

  • Perioperative Recovery of Moods, Opioids, and Pain Trial (PROMPT) Recruiting

    The investigators aim to characterize the relationship between changes in emotional distress, opioid use, and pain throughout surgery and recovery. Additionally, the investigators aim to compare the effectiveness of post-surgical motivational interviewing and physician-guided opioid weaning vs. usual care on reducing persistent opioid use. Overall, the proposed research will advance knowledge regarding the role of psychological factors contributing to persistent opioid use after surgery.

    View full details


All Publications

  • Self-Loathing Aspects of Depression Reduce Postoperative Opioid Cessation Rate PAIN MEDICINE Hah, J. M., Mackey, S., Barelka, P. L., Wang, C. K., Wang, B. M., Gillespie, M. J., McCue, R., Younger, J. W., Trafton, J., Humphreys, K., Goodman, S. B., Dirbas, F. M., Schmidt, P. C., Carroll, I. R. 2014; 15 (6): 954-964

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pme.12439

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338025900009

  • Self-loathing aspects of depression reduce postoperative opioid cessation rate. Pain medicine Hah, J. M., Mackey, S., Barelka, P. L., Wang, C. K., Wang, B. M., Gillespie, M. J., McCue, R., Younger, J. W., Trafton, J., Humphreys, K., Goodman, S. B., Dirbas, F. M., Schmidt, P. C., Carroll, I. R. 2014; 15 (6): 954-964


    We previously reported that increased preoperative Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) scores were associated with a 47% (95% CI 24%-64%) reduction in the rate of opioid cessation following surgery. We aimed to identify the underlying factors of the BDI-II (affective/cognitive vs somatic) associated with a decreased rate of opioid cessation after surgery.We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from a previously reported prospective, longitudinal, observational study of opioid use after five distinct surgical procedures (total hip replacement, total knee replacement, thoracotomy, mastectomy, and lumpectomy) in 107 patients. The primary endpoint was time to opioid cessation. After exploratory factor analysis of the BDI-II, mean summary scores were calculated for each identified factor. These scores were evaluated as predictors of time to opioid cessation using Cox proportional hazards regression.The exploratory factor analysis produced three factors (self-loathing symptoms, motivational symptoms, emotional symptoms). All three factors were significant predictors in univariate analysis. Of the three identified factors of the BDI-II, only preoperative self-loathing symptoms (past failure, guilty feelings, self-dislike, self-criticalness, suicidal thoughts, worthlessness) independently predicted a significant decrease in opioid cessation rate after surgery in the multivariate analysis (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99, P value 0.037).Our results identify a set of negative cognitions predicting prolonged time to postoperative opioid cessation. Somatic symptoms captured by the BDI-II were not primarily responsible for the association between preoperative BDI-II scores and postoperative prolonged opioid use.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pme.12439

    View details for PubMedID 24964916

  • From Catastrophizing to Recovery: a pilot study of a single-session treatment for pain catastrophizing. Journal of pain research Darnall, B. D., Sturgeon, J. A., Kao, M., Hah, J. M., Mackey, S. C. 2014; 7: 219-226


    Pain catastrophizing (PC) - a pattern of negative cognitive-emotional responses to real or anticipated pain - maintains chronic pain and undermines medical treatments. Standard PC treatment involves multiple sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy. To provide efficient treatment, we developed a single-session, 2-hour class that solely treats PC entitled "From Catastrophizing to Recovery" [FCR].To determine 1) feasibility of FCR; 2) participant ratings for acceptability, understandability, satisfaction, and likelihood to use the information learned; and 3) preliminary efficacy of FCR for reducing PC.Uncontrolled prospective pilot trial with a retrospective chart and database review component. Seventy-six patients receiving care at an outpatient pain clinic (the Stanford Pain Management Center) attended the class as free treatment and 70 attendees completed and returned an anonymous survey immediately post-class. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was administered at class check-in (baseline) and at 2, and 4 weeks post-treatment. Within subjects repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Student's t-test contrasts were used to compare scores across time points.All attendees who completed a baseline PCS were included as study participants (N=57; F=82%; mean age =50.2 years); PCS was completed by 46 participants at week 2 and 35 participants at week 4. Participants had significantly reduced PC at both time points (P<0001) and large effect sizes were found (Cohen's d=0.85 and d=1.15).Preliminary data suggest that FCR is an acceptable and effective treatment for PC. Larger, controlled studies of longer duration are needed to determine durability of response, factors contributing to response, and the impact on pain, function and quality of life.

    View details for DOI 10.2147/JPR.S62329

    View details for PubMedID 24851056

  • Perioperative interventions to reduce chronic postsurgical pain. Journal of reconstructive microsurgery Carroll, I., Hah, J., Mackey, S., Ottestad, E., Kong, J. T., Lahidji, S., Tawfik, V., Younger, J., Curtin, C. 2013; 29 (4): 213-222


    Approximately 10% of patients following a variety of surgeries develop chronic postsurgical pain. Reducing chronic postoperative pain is especially important to reconstructive surgeons because common operations such as breast and limb reconstruction have even higher risk for developing chronic postsurgical pain. Animal studies of posttraumatic nerve injury pain demonstrate that there is a critical time frame before and immediately after nerve injury in which specific interventions can reduce the incidence and intensity of chronic neuropathic pain behaviors-so called "preventative analgesia." In animal models, perineural local anesthetic, systemic intravenous local anesthetic, perineural clonidine, systemic gabapentin, systemic tricyclic antidepressants, and minocycline have each been shown to reduce pain behaviors days to weeks after treatment. The translation of this work to humans also suggests that brief perioperative interventions may protect patients from developing new chronic postsurgical pain. Recent clinical trial data show that there is an opportunity during the perioperative period to dramatically reduce the incidence and severity of chronic postsurgical pain. The surgeon, working with the anesthesiologist, has the ability to modify both early and chronic postoperative pain by implementing an evidence-based preventative analgesia plan.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0032-1329921

    View details for PubMedID 23463498

  • Perioperative Interventions to Reduce Chronic Postsurgical Pain JOURNAL OF RECONSTRUCTIVE MICROSURGERY Carroll, I., Hah, J., Mackey, S., Ottestad, E., Kong, J. T., Lahidji, S., Tawfik, V., Younger, J., Curtin, C. 2013; 29 (4): 213-222
  • Exploratory factor analysis of the beck depression inventory: predictors of delayed opioid cessation after surgery in a pilot cohort study Hah, J., Carroll, I., Younger, J., Mackey, S. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE. 2013: S25-S25
  • Analysis of preoperative measures that predict interference with sleep recovery after surgery Schmidt, P., Hah, J., Barelka, P., Wang, C., Wang, B., Gillespie, M., McCue, R., Younger, J., Trafton, J., Humphreys, K., Goodman, S., Dirbas, F., Whyte, R., Donington, J., Cannon, W., Mackey, S., Carroll, I. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE. 2013: S19-S19
  • Factors contributing to pain chronicity CURRENT PAIN AND HEADACHE REPORTS Wang, C. K., Hah, J. M., Carroll, I. 2009; 13 (1): 7-11


    The chronicity of pain is the feature of pain that is least understood and most directly linked with our inability to effectively manage pain. Acute pain is relatively responsive to our current pharmacologic and interventional armamentarium. However, as pain persists, our ability to treat effectively diminishes and the patient's frustration and resource utilization increases. This article explores our current understanding of the factors linked to pain duration and the transition from acute to chronic pain in both human and animal models, and across a spectrum of human chronic pain conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11916-009-0003-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263064900003

    View details for PubMedID 19126364

  • The dromedary sign - An unusual capnograph tracing ANESTHESIOLOGY Jaffe, R. A., Talavera, J. A., Hah, J. M., Brock-Utne, J. G. 2008; 109 (1): 149-150

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257135300022

    View details for PubMedID 18580185

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