Doctor of Philosophy, Peking University (2011)
To reveal the full potential of human pluripotent stem cells, new methods for rapid, site-specific genomic engineering are needed. Here, we describe a system for precise genetic modification of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We identified a novel human locus, H11, located in a safe, intergenic, transcriptionally active region of chromosome 22, as the recipient site, to provide robust, ubiquitous expression of inserted genes. Recipient cell lines were established by site-specific placement of a 'landing pad' cassette carrying attP sites for phiC31 and Bxb1 integrases at the H11 locus by spontaneous or TALEN-assisted homologous recombination. Dual integrase cassette exchange (DICE) mediated by phiC31 and Bxb1 integrases was used to insert genes of interest flanked by phiC31 and Bxb1 attB sites at the H11 locus, replacing the landing pad. This system provided complete control over content, direction and copy number of inserted genes, with a specificity of 100%. A series of genes, including mCherry and various combinations of the neural transcription factors LMX1a, FOXA2 and OTX2, were inserted in recipient cell lines derived from H9 ESC, as well as iPSC lines derived from a Parkinson's disease patient and a normal sibling control. The DICE system offers rapid, efficient and precise gene insertion in ESC and iPSC and is particularly well suited for repeated modifications of the same locus.
View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkt1290
View details for PubMedID 24304893
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a promising possibility for type 1 diabetes therapy. However, the generation of insulin-producing cells from iPSCs and evaluation of their efficacy and safety should be achieved in large animals before clinically applying iPSC-derived cells in humans. Here we try to generate insulin-producing cells from rhesus monkey (RM) iPSCs.Based on the knowledge of embryonic pancreatic development, we developed a four-stage protocol to generate insulin-producing cells from RM iPSCs. We established a quantitative method using flow cytometry to analyse the differentiation efficiency. In addition, to evaluate the differentiation competence and function of RM iPSC-derived cells, transplantation of stage 3 and 4 cells into immunodeficient mice was performed.RM iPSCs were sequentially induced to definitive endoderm (DE), pancreatic progenitors (PP), endocrine precursors (EP) and insulin-producing cells. PDX1(+) PP cells were obtained efficiently from RM iPSCs (over 85% efficiency). The TGF-? inhibitor SB431542 promoted the generation of NGN3(+) EP cells, which can generate insulin-producing cells in vivo upon transplantation. Finally, after this four-stage differentiation in vitro, insulin-producing cells that could secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation were obtained. When transplanted into mouse models for diabetes, these insulin-producing cells could decrease blood glucose levels in approximately 50% of the mice.We demonstrate for the first time that RM iPSCs can be differentiated into functional insulin-producing cells, which will provide the basis for investigating the efficacy and safety of autologous iPSC-derived insulin-producing cells in a rhesus monkey model for type 1 diabetes therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00125-011-2246-x
View details for Web of Science ID 000293544900018
View details for PubMedID 21755313
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from somatic cells by transduction with several transcription factors in mouse and human. However, direct reprogramming in other species has not been reported. Here, we generated monkey iPS cells by retrovirus-mediated introduction of monkey transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2008.10.014
View details for Web of Science ID 000261670900006
View details for PubMedID 19041774
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global challenge to public health. Several factors have been proven to be critical for HCV entry, including the newly identified claudin-1 (CLDN1). However, the mechanism of HCV entry is still obscure. Presently, among the 20 members of the claudin family identified in humans so far, CLDN1 has been the only member shown to be necessary for HCV entry. Recently, we discovered that Bel7402, an HCV-permissive cell line, does not express CLDN1 but expresses other members of claudin family. Among these claudins, CLDN9 was able to mediate HCV entry just as efficiently as CLDN1. We then examined if other members of the claudin family could mediate entry. We show that CLDN6 and CLDN9, but not CLDN2, CLDN3, CLDN4, CLDN7, CLDN11, CLDN12, CLDN15, CLDN17, and CLDN23, were able to mediate the entry of HCV into target cells. We found that CLDN6 and CLDN9 are expressed in the liver, the primary site of HCV replication. We also showed that CLDN6 and CLDN9, but not CLDN1, are expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, an additional site of HCV replication. Through sequence comparison and mutagenesis studies, we show that residues N38 and V45 in the first extracellular loop (EL1) of CLDN9 are necessary for HCV entry.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.01457-07
View details for Web of Science ID 000254065400037
View details for PubMedID 17804490