Education & Certifications
M.S., Georgetown University, Physiology and Biophysics (2010)
B.A., UC Berkeley, Molecular and Cell Biology (2007)
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is a severe genetic blistering skin condition resulting in chronic wounds. Nonhealing wounds were treated over 8 weeks using a reconstituted natural purified type I collagen skin substitute. Chronic wounds were defined as nonhealing wounds present for longer than 6 months. For each patient, two chronic wounds were identified and randomized into a control or treatment group. Both groups received standard-of-care wound dressings. The treatment group received an additional type I collagen skin substitute. Wound size was measured at baseline and weeks 1, 4, and 8. Pain, pruritus, and burning and stinging were assessed. Wound cultures were obtained at baseline and thereafter as was considered clinically relevant. Ten subjects were enrolled; seven completed the study. Six subjects showed a positive response to the type I collagen skin substitute. Three subjects demonstrated full wound reepithelialization. Wounds treated using the collagen skin substitute showed statistically significantly greater improvement. Average scores for pruritus and pain decreased significantly. Reconstituted natural purified type I collagen skin substitutes improved the healing of chronic wounds and may be a valuable addition to the epidermolysis bullosa wound care arsenal.
View details for DOI 10.1111/pde.12492
View details for Web of Science ID 000351747500017
View details for PubMedID 25557742
Qualitative data suggest that pruritus is a burdensome symptom in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB), but the prevalence of pruritus in children and adults with EB and factors that contribute to pruritus are unknown. The objective of the current study was to quantitatively identify and to characterize pruritus that EB patients experience using a comprehensive online questionnaire. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate pruritus in all ages and all types of EB. Questions that characterize pruritus were included and factors that aggravate symptoms were investigated. Patients from seven North American EB centers were invited to participate. One hundred forty-six of 216 questionnaires were completed (response rate 68%; 73 male, 73 female; median age 20.0 years). Using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = often, 5 = always), itchiness was the most bothersome EB complication (mean 3.3). The average daily frequency of pruritus increased with self-reported EB severity. Pruritus was most frequent at bedtime (mean 3.8) and interfered with sleep. Factors that aggravated pruritus included healing wounds, dry skin, infected wounds, stress, heat, dryness, and humidity. Pruritus is common in individuals with EB and can be bothersome. Future studies will need to investigate the most effective treatments given to individuals with EB for pruritus.
View details for DOI 10.1111/pde.12391
View details for PubMedID 25236506
The skin possesses qualities that make it desirable for gene therapy, and studies have focused on gene therapy for multiple cutaneous diseases. Gene therapy uses a vector to introduce genetic material into cells to alter gene expression, negating a pathological process. This can be accomplished with a variety of viral vectors or nonviral administrations. Although results are promising, there are several potential pitfalls that must be addressed to improve the safety profile to make gene therapy widely available clinically.
View details for DOI 10.1101/cshperspect.a015149
View details for PubMedID 24692191
Our group's 2009 study of the integrity of the dermatology match revealed that some dermatology program directors violated National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) policy during their communications with applicants. Our group's article concluded with recommendations to change this behavior.We repeated a survey of dermatology applicants to understand if dermatology program personnel behavior has changed since our group's 2009 study of the dermatology match.We surveyed 2011 applicants to Department of Dermatology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. The survey was anonymous and available online.Of applicants, 14% were asked to reveal how they intended to rank a program before match day. Of applicants, 32% felt pressured to reveal how they intended to rank programs. Of applicants, 90% were asked about interviews at other programs. Of applicants, 44% were asked about their marital status and 19% were asked if they had children or intended to have children.The response rate for applicants was 53%.Although our previous study increased knowledge about the problems within the dermatology match, dermatology program personnel continue to violate NRMP policy. The most widespread violations are asking applicants where they will interview, asking applicants if they are married, and pressuring applicants to reveal how they intend to rank programs. We continue to recommend that programs avoid postinterview contact, and recommend that the NRMP create training videos for applicants and interviewers.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2011.09.035
View details for Web of Science ID 000307824000027
View details for PubMedID 22088426
Cigarette smoking is well-known to associate with accelerated skin aging as well as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer, in large part due to oxidative stress. Because metabolites are downstream of genetic variation, as well as transcriptional changes and post-translational modifications of proteins, they are the most proximal reporters of disease states or reversal of disease states.In this study, we explore the potential effects of commonly available oral supplements (containing antioxidants, vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids) on the metabolomes of smokers (n = 11) compared to non-smokers (n = 17). At baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation, metabolomic analysis was performed on serum by liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS and GC-MS). Furthermore, clinical parameters of skin aging, including cutometry as assessed by three dermatologist raters blinded to subjects' age and smoking status, were measured.Long-chain fatty acids, including palmitate and oleate, decreased in smokers by 0.76-fold (P = 0.0045) and 0.72-fold (P = 0.0112), respectively. These changes were not observed in non-smokers. Furthermore, age and smoking status showed increased glow (P = 0.004) and a decrease in fine wrinkling (P = 0.038). Cutometry showed an increase in skin elasticity in smokers (P = 0.049) but not in non-smokers. Complexion analysis software (VISIA) revealed decreases in the number of ultraviolet spots (P = 0.031), and cutometry showed increased elasticity (P = 0.05) in smokers but not non-smokers.Additional future work may shed light on the specific mechanisms by which long-chain fatty acids can lead to increased glow, improved elasticity measures and decreased fine wrinkling in smokers' skin. Our study provides a novel, medicine-focused application of available metabolomic technology to identify changes in sera of human subjects with oxidative stress, and suggests that oral supplementation (in particular, commonly available antioxidants, vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids) affects these individuals in a way that is unique (compared to non-smokers) on a broad level.
View details for DOI 10.1186/gm313
View details for Web of Science ID 000314566400001
View details for PubMedID 22360970
National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) policy outlines the conduct expected by both program directors and residency applicants. However, recent studies and personal experiences have introduced the possibility that NRMP policy is violated during the residency application process.To investigate the communications that occur between dermatology applicants and dermatology programs during the residency application process.From April to July 2009, we surveyed 2009 Stanford dermatology applicants, current US dermatology residents, and US dermatology program directors. The survey was anonymous and available online. The main outcome measures were the frequency and incidence of dermatology NRMP policy violations.Thirty-one percent of Stanford applicants and 19% of US dermatology residents felt pressured to reveal to programs how they ranked them before match day. Seventeen percent of Stanford applicants and 14% of US dermatology residents witnessed behavior that made them feel uncomfortable or that they thought was a possible ethical infraction of NRMP policy.Response rates were as follows: 43% of Stanford applicants, 46% of residents, and 61% of program directors.Our data suggest that some dermatology program directors violate NRMP policy during their communications with applicants. The most widespread violation is pressuring applicants into revealing how they intend to rank programs. Other violations include apparent sexual discrimination and reserving NRMP positions for preselected applicants. Additional studies should be done in order to determine the incidence of dermatology applicants violating NRMP policy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2009.11.009
View details for Web of Science ID 000282069400006
View details for PubMedID 20599295
View details for Web of Science ID 000285531700007
Pilomatricoma is a benign tumor that presents as a 3-30-mm, firm, solitary, deep, dermal or subcutaneous tumor on the head, neck, or upper extremities. The clinical diagnosis is often made by the firm, sometimes rock-hard texture of the skin. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a skin biopsy or excision of the lesion. We have recently noted that pilomatricomas appear as a black mass in the skin when the lesion is transilluminated by placing the light of a fiberoptic otoscope adjacent to the skin lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating preoperative diagnosis of pilomatricoma by transilluminating the lesion with an otoscope.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2010.01264.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000282178800036
View details for PubMedID 20807359
Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) have significant antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, and prior short-term studies suggest that these compounds may improve photoaging skin.To evaluate the long-term effects of oral GTPs on the clinical and histologic characteristics of photoaging skin.Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 56 women aged 25 to 75 randomized to 250 mg GTPs or placebo twice daily for 2 years. A blinded dermatologist scored the appearance of photodamaged facial skin at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. A blinded dermatopathologist scored the histologic characteristics of sun-exposed arm skin at 0 and 24 months.Clinical assessment of facial skin revealed that the GTP group had significant improvement in overall solar damage at 6 months (p=.02) and significant improvement in erythema and telangiectasias at 12 months (p=.02). The placebo group did not have significant improvements in these parameters at 6 months or 12 months. There were no statistically significant differences in other photoaging parameters at 6, 12, or 24 months in the GTP or placebo groups. Histopathologic analysis of sunexposed arm skin showed no statistically significant difference in photoaging parameters in the GTP group or the placebo group at 24 months.Long-term supplementation with oral GTPs was not superior to placebo in improving clinical or histologic photoaging parameters after 24 months of use.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1524-4725.2009.01183.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000267658700006
View details for PubMedID 19469799
To investigate whether the adoption of Western culture is associated with attitudes and practices promoting sun exposure among Asian Americans.Survey conducted from November 28, 2007, to January 28, 2008.Primarily northern California community groups via online survey.Adult volunteers who self-identified as Asian American.Results based on 546 questionnaires returned.The overall response rate was 74.4%. Multivariate regression analysis controlling for age and skin type showed that westernization (as determined by generation in the United States, location raised, or self-rated acculturation) was associated with attitudes and behaviors promoting sun exposure (including the belief that having a tan is attractive, negative attitudes toward use of sunscreen and sun protective clothing, and increased weekend sun exposure, lying out to get a tan, and tanning bed use) at a level of P < .05.Our data suggest that adoption of Western culture may be associated with attitudes and behaviors promoting sun exposure among Asian Americans. This group should be targeted by dermatologists for increased education regarding sun protection, solar damage, and skin cancer prevention and detection.
View details for Web of Science ID 000266207400006
View details for PubMedID 19451499