Clinical Focus

  • Otolaryngology
  • Laryngology
  • Voice Disorders
  • Hoarseness
  • Singers
  • Vocal Cord Paralysis
  • Spasmodic Dysphonia
  • Laryngeal Cancer
  • Laryngeal Laser Thearapy
  • Swallowing Disorders
  • Airway Disorders

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Medical Student Admissions Reviewer, Stanford University School of Medicine (2012 - Present)
  • Laryngology & Bronchoesophagology Education Committee, American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery (2011 - Present)
  • Home Study Course Laryngology & Bronchoesophagology Working Group, American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery (2011 - Present)
  • Course Director of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery Grand Rounds, Stanford University School of Medicine, Dept. of Otolaryngology (2011 - 2015)
  • Director of Otolaryngology Medical Student Clerkship, Stanford University School of Medicine, Dept. of Otolaryngology (2011 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • J. Arthur Campbell Award for Chemistry, Harvey Mudd College (1989)
  • Phi Lambda Upsilon, University of Pennsylvania (1989)
  • Outstanding Teaching Award, Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania (1990)
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, SUNY Downstate Medical Center (2003)
  • Award for Outstanding Academic Achievement, Department of Otolaryngology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center (2004)
  • Magna Cum Laude, SUNY Downstate Medical Center (2004)
  • Third Prize, Metropolitan New York Resident Research Day Symposium (2007)
  • Travel Award, Triological Society (2007, 2009)
  • First Prize Proffered Paper Session, New York Head and Neck Society (2008)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member, American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery (2005 - Present)
  • Diplomate, American Board of Otolaryngology (2010 - Present)
  • Member, American Broncho-Esophagological Association (ABEA) (2013 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship:Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (2010) MA
  • Residency:Mt Sinai School of Medicine (2009) NY
  • Internship:Mount Sinai School of Medicine (2005) NY
  • Medical Education:State University of New York (2004) NY
  • Board Certification: Otolaryngology, American Board of Otolaryngology (2010)
  • Board Certification, American Board of Otolaryngology, Otolaryngology (2010)
  • Fellowship, Harvard Medical School - Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Laryngology (2010)
  • Residency, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, Otolaryngology (2009)
  • Internship, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, General Surgery (2005)
  • MD, State University of New York - Downstate Medical Center, Medicine (2004)
  • MS, University of Pennsylvania, Organic Chemistry (1992)
  • BS, Harvey Mudd College, Chemistry (1989)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

- Development of office-based laryngeal surgical methods and instrumentation.
- Clinical outcomes after treatment of glottic insufficiency.
- Clinical outcomes after treatment of benign vocal fold pathology.
- Medical student and resident training curriculum development.


2015-16 Courses


All Publications

  • Deep brain stimulation for vocal tremor: a comprehensive, multidisciplinary methodology NEUROSURGICAL FOCUS Ho, A. L., Erickson-DiRenzo, E., Pendharkar, A. V., Sung, C., Halpern, C. H. 2015; 38 (6)
  • Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Vocal Tremor: A Technical Report. Cureus Ho, A. L., Choudhri, O., Sung, C. K., DiRenzo, E. E., Halpern, C. H. 2015; 7 (3)


    Essential vocal tremor (EVT) is the presence of a tremulous voice that is commonly associated with essential tremor. Patients with EVT often report a necessary increase in vocal effort that significantly worsens with stress and anxiety and can significantly impact quality of life despite optimal medical and behavioral treatment options. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an effective therapy for vocal tremor, but very few studies exist in the literature that comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of DBS for specifically addressing EVT. We present a technical report on our multidisciplinary, comprehensive operative methodology for treatment of EVT with frameless, awake deep brain stimulation (DBS).

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.256

    View details for PubMedID 26180680

  • Single-Operator Flexible Nasolaryngoscopy-Guided Transthyrohyoid Vocal Fold Injections ANNALS OF OTOLOGY RHINOLOGY AND LARYNGOLOGY Sung, C. K., Tsao, G. J. 2013; 122 (1): 9-14


    A number of laryngeal injection techniques have been described for performing vocal fold medialization or delivery of medications, including peroral and percutaneous approaches. Although flexible nasolaryngoscopy-guided injection (FNGI) improves visualization and patient tolerance over rigid endoscopy, the technique requires an assistant to manipulate the laryngoscope. The efficacy and patient tolerance of a novel, single-operator technique for FNGI are evaluated.Patients who required laryngeal injection for vocal fold medialization or for administration of cidofovir or steroids were included in this study. Indications included vocal fold paresis or paralysis, sulcus deformities, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, vocal fold polyps, and laryngeal granulomas. All procedures were performed in the office setting with topical and local anesthesia with the patient awake. The surgeon performed flexible nasolaryngoscopy with the nondominant hand while using the dominant hand to perform transthyrohyoid injection with a 25-gauge needle with proximal and distal bends.Twenty-six patients underwent a total of 42 single-operator FNGI procedures; 19 unilateral and 23 bilateral injections were performed. All but 1 of the procedures were completed with adequate visualization and placement of injectant and good patient tolerance.Single-operator FNGI via a transthyrohyoid approach is a viable and versatile laryngeal injection technique for a variety of indications. It provides access to the anterior, middle, and posterior parts of the larynx. It eliminates the need for an assistant experienced in nasolaryngoscopy and allows the surgeon to adjust and optimize visualization in a fashion analogous to endoscopic sinus surgery.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313851400003

    View details for PubMedID 23472310

  • Office-Based Laser Laryngeal Surgery Op Tech in Otolaryngol Sung CK 2012; 23 (2): 102-105
  • Management of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Paralysis Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Sung CK, Franco RA Jr. 2011
  • Airway and respiratory complications: Tracheal Stenosis Spinal Cord Injury: Rehabilitation Medicine Quick Reference Altman KW, Sung CK 2010
  • Airway and respiratory interventions: Tracheostomies. Spinal Cord Injury: Rehabilitation Medicine Quick Reference Altman KW, Sung CK 2010


    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the technical feasibility, safety, and efficacy of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for a variety of malignant head and neck lesions.From April 2007 to November 2007, 20 patients were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective trial using the daVinci surgical robot. Inclusion criteria for the study consisted of adults with early head and neck cancer involving the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx.Twenty patients were included in this study. In 2 cases, access to the tumor was inadequate and the procedure was terminated. In all 18 cases, negative resection margins were achieved. Intraoral reconstruction was performed in 8 patients. Fifteen of 18 patients underwent concomitant unilateral (n = 10) or bilateral (n = 5) selective neck dissections. None of the patients required tracheotomy and there were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The average setup time was 54.6 minutes (range, 140-20 minutes), with a precipitous decrease in the setup time as the study progressed.TORS is a safe, feasible, and minimally invasive alternative to classic open surgery or endoscopic transoral laser surgery in patients with early cancer of the head and neck. With increasing experience, surgical setup as well as operative time will continue to decrease.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hed.20972

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264011500001

    View details for PubMedID 18972413

  • Transoral robotic assisted free flap reconstruction OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Mukhija, V. K., Sung, C., Desai, S. C., Wanna, G., Genden, E. M. 2009; 140 (1): 124-125

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.otohns.2008.09.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262458100025

    View details for PubMedID 19130975

  • Transoral Robotic Surgery Using a Carbon Dioxide Flexible Laser for Tumors of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract LARYNGOSCOPE Desai, S. C., Sung, C., Jang, D. W., Genden, E. M. 2008; 118 (12): 2187-2189


    To determine the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of coupling transoral robotic technology with the flexible carbon dioxide (CO2) laser for various tumors of the oropharynx and supraglottic larynx.Prospective, pilot trial.Eight patients were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective trial for transoral robotic surgery with the aid of the flexible CO2 laser.Seven male patients with early carcinoma of the oropharynx or larynx successfully underwent tumor extirpation with the transoral robot and the flexible CO2 laser. We were unable to gain access to the supraglottic larynx in one female patient. The final pathology revealed seven patients with squamous cell carcinoma and one patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma. The flexible CO2 laser provided fine incisions with excellent hemostasis and minimal peripheral tissue injury. Additionally, the laser provided an excellent tool for raising pharyngeal flaps for reconstruction of the oropharynx.The flexible CO2 laser offers a unique advantage of precise incisions and may provide a valuable tool for both tumor extirpation and the creation of flaps for transoral robotic reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MLG.0b013e31818379e4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263200900019

    View details for PubMedID 19029867

  • Transoral Robotic Surgery Using an Image Guidance System LARYNGOSCOPE Desai, S. C., Sung, C., Genden, E. M. 2008; 118 (11): 2003-2005


    To describe a novel technique using the image guidance system for transoral robotic surgery of the pharyngeal and parapharyngeal spaces.Case series presentation.Three cases of oropharyngeal and pharyngeal space lesions are reviewed for presentation, workup, and original management.Final pathology of a vascular malformation, an acinic cell adenocarcinoma, and a squamous cell carcinoma were located and minimally invasively removed by a transoral robotic approach with the aid of image guidance. No complications or recurrences were observed on an average of 7 month follow-up.Transoral robotic surgery using an image guidance system seems safe and effective in assisting dissection.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MLG.0b013e3181818784

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260874700017

    View details for PubMedID 18849862

  • The administration of IL-12/GM-CSF and Ig-4-1BB ligand markedly decreases murine floor of mouth squamous cell cancer OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Adappa, N. D., Sung, C., Choi, B., Huang, T., Genden, E. M., Shin, E. J. 2008; 139 (3): 442-448


    To assess immune-based gene therapy in a murine floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) model.In vitro and in vivo testing of immune therapy for SCC.Multiple SCC lines were infected by using advRSV-interleukin-12 (IL-12) and advCMV-interleukin-12/granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (IL-12/GM-CSF) and monitored for production of IL-12 and GM-CSF. Intratumoral injections of viral vectors were administered with systemic Ig-4-1BB ligand in an orthotopic murine FOM SCC model and followed for tumor size and survival.In vitro, all cell lines produced substantial levels of IL-12 and GM-CSF. In vivo, tumors treated with advCMV-IL-12/GM-CSF and Ig-4-1BBL showed a striking reduction in tumor volume (vs control P<0.0001) and improved median survival (38 days vs 19 days for control, P<0.0001).Combination immune-based therapies effectively improve survival in mice bearing FOM SCC over single-modality therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.otohns.2008.05.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258858400020

    View details for PubMedID 18722228

  • Combined VSV Oncolytic Virus and Chemotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma LARYNGOSCOPE Sung, C., Choi, B., Wanna, G., Genden, E. M., Woo, S. L., Shin, E. J. 2008; 118 (2): 237-242


    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a negative-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus that replicates specifically in tumor cells and has oncolytic effects in a variety of malignant tumors. We previously demonstrated recombinant VSV vectors incorporating viral fusion protein (rVSV-F) and interleukin 12 (rVSV-IL12) to have significant antitumor effects against squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a murine model. Here we evaluate the potential to combine a potent chemotherapeutic agent for SCC (cisplatin) with rVSV-F and rVSV-IL12 to improve efficacy.In vitro, three SCC cell lines were tested using rVSV-F and rVSV-IL12 with cisplatin, monitoring viral replication and cell survival. In an orthotopic floor of mouth murine SCC model, intratumoral injections of virus combined with systemic cisplatin were tested for tumor control and animal survival.In vitro, virus and cisplatin combination demonstrated rapid replication and enhanced tumor cell kill. Human keratinocytes were unaffected by virus and cisplatin. In vivo, combined rVSV-F with cisplatin reduced tumor burden and improved survival (P = .2 for both), while rVSV-IL12 monotherapy had better tumor control (P = .06) and survival (P = .024) than combination therapy.Addition of cisplatin did not affect the ability of either virus to replicate in or kill murine SCC cells in vitro. In vivo, combination therapy enhancedrVSV-F antitumor activity, but diminished rVSV-IL12 antitumor activity. Combination therapy may provide useful treatment for SCC with the development of more efficient viral vectors in combination with different chemotherapy agents or immunostimulatory agents.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MLG.0b013e3181581977

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260661500008

    View details for PubMedID 18043494