Doctor of Philosophy, University of Iowa (2010)
Steven Artandi, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
The establishment of the left-right (LR) axis in zebrafish embryos relies on signals from the dorsal forerunner cells (DFC) and the Kupffer's vesicle (KV). While the Wnt signaling network influences many aspects of embryonic development, its precise role in LR patterning is still unclear. One branch of the Wnt network leads to stabilization of ?-catenin and activation of downstream target genes. Other Wnt ligands appear to act independently of ?-catenin to modulate calcium release and influence cell polarity. Central to regulation of ?-catenin and coordination of convergent extension (CE) movements is Dishevelled (Dvl). Naked Cuticle (Nkd) binds Dvl and modulates ?-catenin-dependent and independent Wnt signaling. Here, we analyze the expression patterns of three zebrafish Nkd homologs and find enriched expression of nkd1 in DFCs and KV. Dvl is degraded upon Nkd1 overexpression in zebrafish. Knockdown of Nkd1 specifically in the DFC results in ?-catenin nuclear localization and transcriptional activation as well as alterations to DFC migration, KV formation, ciliogenesis and LR patterning. Furthermore, we identify asymmetric expression of the Nodal antagonist charon around the KV and show that Nkd1 knockdown impacts asymmetric charon expression. Our findings show that Nkd1 acts as a ?-catenin antagonist in the DFCs necessary for LR patterning.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.08.040
View details for Web of Science ID 000284438400005
View details for PubMedID 20858476
Noncanonical Wnts are largely believed to act as permissive cues for vertebrate cell movement via Frizzled (Fz). In addition to Fz, Wnt ligands are known to regulate neurite outgrowth through an alternative receptor related to tyrosine kinase (Ryk). However, Wnt-Ryk signaling during embryogenesis is less well characterized. In this study, we report a role for Wnt5b as an instructive cue to regulate gastrulation movements through Ryk. In zebrafish, Ryk deficiency impairs Wnt5b-induced Ca(2+) activity and directional cell movement. Wnt5b-Ryk signaling promotes polarized cell protrusions. Upon Wnt5b stimulation, Fz2 but not Ryk recruits Dishevelled to the cell membrane, suggesting that Fz2 and Ryk mediate separate pathways. Using co-culture assays to generate directional Wnt5b cues, we demonstrate that Ryk-expressing cells migrate away from the Wnt5b source. We conclude that full-length Ryk conveys Wnt5b signals in a directional manner during gastrulation.
View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.200912128
View details for Web of Science ID 000280593300011
View details for PubMedID 20660632
The Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway regulates directed cell movement during development and was recently found to play a critical role in endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis [Zhang Y, et al. (2006) Chem Biol 13:1001-1009; Masckauchan TN, et al. (2006) Mol Biol Cell 17:5163-5172]. However, the mechanisms by which PCP signaling components regulate angiogenesis remain unknown. We report that expression of a constitutively active C-terminal domain of Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1) selectively inhibited endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, this activated construct suppressed endothelial cell migration and the ability to form coordinated networks in vivo and in vitro. Although constitutively active DAAM1 (CDAAM1) induced both actin polymerization and microtubule (MT) stabilization, the stabilization of MTs alone was sufficient to inhibit endothelial cell growth selectively. Inhibition of actin polymerization alone by jasplakinolide treatment failed to reproduce the inhibitory effects of CDAAM1. These results indicate that DAAM1 regulates endothelial cell growth through MT stabilization in a cell type-selective manner and suggest that PCP signaling plays a pivotal role in angiogenesis by regulating MT stabilization.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1001075107
View details for Web of Science ID 000276642100063
View details for PubMedID 20351293
The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that coordinates both epithelial and axonal morphogenic movements during development. Angiogenesis also involves the growth and migration of polarized cells, although the mechanisms underlying their intercellular communication are poorly understood. Here, using cell culture assays, we demonstrate that inhibition of PCP signaling disrupts endothelial cell growth, polarity, and migration, all of which can be rescued through downstream activation of this pathway by expression of either Daam-1, Diversin or Inversin. Silencing of either Dvl2 or Prickle suppressed endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, loss of p53 rescues endothelial cell growth arrest but not the migration inhibition caused by PCP disruption. In addition, we show that the zebrafish Wnt5 mutant (pipetail (ppt)), which has impaired PCP signaling, displays vascular developmental defects. These findings reveal a potential role for PCP signaling in the coordinated assembly of endothelial cells into vascular structures and have important implications for vascular remodeling in development and disease.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10456-008-9116-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000262309700004
View details for PubMedID 18798004