Emeritus Faculty, Acad Council, Medicine - Cardiovascular Medicine
Experimental and clinical epidemiology of myocardial, infarction; exercise testing; cardiac risk factor management;, cardiac rehabilitation; systems for patient management; ischemic, heart disease; computer-based expert systems.
Spironolactone has recently been shown to have a favorable impact on the prognosis and functional status of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and severe symptoms who are receiving standard therapy. However, participants in clinical studies of spironolactone represent a selected group. Clinicians managing a less selected group must be mindful of selection criteria and appropriate methods to monitor patients who are initiated on these medications. In this review, two case studies are described that demonstrate the importance of careful selection of candidates for spironolactone, the need for close laboratory and symptom monitoring, and the need for patients' active participation in reporting changes in their clinical status. (c)2001 CHF, Inc.
View details for PubMedID 11828177
Erectile dysfunction (ED) and coronary artery disease (CAD) interact in complex ways: ED is increasingly recognized as a harbinger or risk factor for CAD; a small proportion of cases (about 1%) of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), including acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death, occur during or after sexual activity; the absolute risk associated with coitus, including that associated with the use of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors to treat ED, is extremely low; virtually all patients experiencing ACS have previously existing (but usually undiagnosed) CAD; and patients often have ED after ACS as a result of psychological factors or drugs, such as beta-blockers, used to treat CAD. The Princeton Guidelines provide a pragmatic approach to stratifying the risk of ACS in patients with established CAD or at high risk for future ACS. Only a minority of patients destined to experience ACS, including those events related to coitus, have established CAD. Yet, most have > or =2 coronary risk factors. The most pragmatic approach to decreasing the risk of ACS in such individuals is to maximize risk factor control and institute combination pharmacotherapy, including statins. The PDE5 inhibitors ameliorate not only ED but also endothelial cell dysfunction. Research to establish the role for PDE5 inhibitors in the prevention and control of ACS is in its early stages. The recognition that ED is a potential harbinger of underlying CAD and future ACS is an important milestone in the management of ED. Progress in integrating PDE5 inhibitors into clinical practice will depend on the success with which patients with ED are evaluated and aggressively treated for endothelial cell dysfunction.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.10.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000234555900014
View details for PubMedID 16387570
Nurse care management programs for patients with chronic illness have been shown to be safe and effective.To determine whether a telephone-mediated nurse care management program for heart failure reduced the rate of rehospitalization for heart failure and for all causes over a 1-year period.Randomized, controlled trial of usual care with nurse management versus usual care alone in patients hospitalized for heart failure from May 1998 through October 2001.5 northern California hospitals in a large health maintenance organization.Of 2786 patients screened, 462 met clinical criteria for heart failure and were randomly assigned (228 to intervention and 234 to usual care).Nurse care management provided structured telephone surveillance and treatment for heart failure and coordination of patients' care with primary care physicians.Time to first rehospitalization for heart failure or for any cause and time to a combined end point of first rehospitalization, emergency department visit, or death.At 1 year, half of the patients had been rehospitalized at least once and 11% had died. Only one third of rehospitalizations were for heart failure. The rate of first rehospitalization for heart failure was similar in both groups (proportional hazard, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.46 to 1.57]). The rate of all-cause rehospitalization was similar (proportional hazard, 0.98 [CI, 0.76 to 1.27]).The findings of this study, conducted in a single health care system, may not be generalizable to other health care systems. The overall effect of the intervention was minor.Among patients with heart failure at low risk on the basis of sociodemographic and medical attributes, nurse care management did not statistically significantly reduce rehospitalizations for heart failure or for any cause. Such programs may be less effective for patients at low risk than those at high risk.
View details for Web of Science ID 000224652300004
View details for PubMedID 15492340
Standard office-based approaches to controlling hypertension show limited success. Such suboptimal hypertension control reflects in part the absence of both an infrastructure for patient education and frequent, regular blood pressure (BP) monitoring. We tested the efficacy of a physician-directed, nurse-managed, home-based system for hypertension management with standardized algorithms to modulate drug therapy, based on patients' reports of home BP.We randomized outpatients requiring drug therapy for hypertension according to the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI) criteria to receive usual medical care only (UC, n = 76) or usual care plus nurse care management intervention (INT, n = 74) over a 6-month period.Patients receiving INT achieved greater reductions in office BP values at 6 months than those receiving UC: 14.2 +/- 18.1 versus 5.7 +/- 18.7 mm Hg systolic (P < .01) and 6.5 +/- 10.0 versus 3.4 +/- 7.9 mm Hg diastolic, respectively (P < .05). At 6 months, we observed one or more changes in drug therapy in 97% of INT patients versus 43% of UC patients, and 70% of INT patients received two or more drugs versus 46% of UC. Average daily adherence to medication, measured by electronic drug event monitors, was superior among INT subjects (mean +/- SD, 80.5% +/- 23.0%) than among UC subjects (69.2 +/- 31.1%; t(113) = 2.199, P = .03). There were no significant adverse drug reactions in either group.Telephone-mediated nurse management can successfully address many of the systems-related and patient-related issues that limit pharmacotherapeutic effectiveness for hypertension.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjhyper.2004.06.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000224501900010
View details for PubMedID 15485755
Silent ischemia is highly prevalent among patients with ischemic heart disease and is associated with a poor prognosis in moderate/high risk outpatients who either exhibit exercise- or pharmacological-induced myocardial ischemia, or in those patients who demonstrate silent ischemia following an acute coronary syndrome. Pharmacotherapy, including beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, calcium channel antagonists and antiplatelet agents, have all demonstrated a reduction in silent ischemia and an improvement in cardiac prognosis. The management of patients with ischemic heart disease is currently based on patients' report of anginal symptoms: documentation of silent ischemia, usually using ambulatory electrocardiography, is not incorporated into the routine management of coronary artery disease. Yet studies comparing ambulatory electrocardiography with exercise testing have shown these tests to be complementary. We review the evidence concerning the prognostic value of ambulatory electrocardiography for monitoring silent ischemia and the prognostic value of attenuating silent ischemia. Mitigation of silent ischemia improves cardiac prognosis and ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring before and after treatment of silent ischemia can play a valuable role in the management of coronary artery disease.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijcard.2003.08.019
View details for Web of Science ID 000223579800001
View details for PubMedID 15301883
This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study of the efficacy and safety of sildenafil in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and clinically stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients were randomized to receive sildenafil or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were questions 3 and 4 of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Secondary outcomes included the other IIEF questions and functional domains, the Life Satisfaction Checklist, the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction, 2 global efficacy assessment questions, and intercourse success rate. By week 12, sildenafil-treated patients (n = 70) showed significant improvements on questions 3 and 4 compared with placebo-treated patients (n = 72; p <0.01). Larger percentages of sildenafil-treated patients reported improved erections (64%) and improved intercourse (65%) compared with placebo-treated patients (21% and 19%, respectively). Sildenafil-treated patients were highly satisfied with treatment and their sexual life compared with placebo-treated patients. Forty-seven percent of sildenafil- and 32% of placebo-treated patients experienced adverse events, including transient headache, hypertension, flushing, and dyspepsia. There were no serious drug-related cardiovascular effects. Thus, sildenafil is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for ED in men with CAD. Sildenafil was not associated with additional safety risks in this patient population.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.09.030
View details for Web of Science ID 000188211100004
View details for PubMedID 14715338
This study reports on the effectiveness of a nurse case-managed smoking cessation program for general hospitalized patients that was continued for 3 years after clinical trials were completed. Patients admitted to the hospital who smoked were offered a smoking cessation program during their hospitalization. The program included physician advice, bedside education and counseling with a nurse specially trained in smoking cessation techniques, take-home materials (videotape, workbook, and relaxation audiotape), nicotine replacement therapy if requested or indicated, and four nurse-initiated post-discharge telephone counseling calls. Of the 2091 patients identified as smokers, 52% enrolled in the program, 18% wanted to quit on their own, 20% did not want to quit, and 10% were ineligible. The 12-month self-reported cessation rate (7-day point prevalence) was 35% if patients lost to follow-up were considered smokers, 49% if not. Patients hospitalized for cancer, cardiovascular, or pulmonary reasons were most likely to participate and had the highest self-reported cessation rates (63%, 57%, and 46%, respectively). This nurse-managed smoking cessation intervention was effective when it was put into standard hospital practice outside of its originating randomized clinical trial structure. The program, relatively inexpensive to deliver, appears to be acceptable to the majority of smokers who are hospitalized, resulted in high 1-year cessation rates, and can be extended to hospital employees and their families, work-sites, and communities on a cost-recovery basis.
View details for PubMedID 12096707
View details for PubMedID 11147256
The treatment of chronic disease is often complicated by the coexistence of multiple medical conditions and by the presence of social and psychological impediments. The needs posed by patients with chronic disease are overwhelming the capacity of the American health care system. Alternative disease management systems that rely on specially trained nurse case managers to implement detailed clinical protocols, including drug algorithms, have shown efficacy in managing chronic medical conditions, singly and in combination. By fostering integration of care across subspecialty and medical-social boundaries, such systems enable treatment of the patient with disease(s), not simply treatment of disease(s) in the patient. Working closely with primary care physicians, often by telephone-mediated interaction with patients, nurse case managers may take an expanded role in meeting the challenges posed by chronic disease.
View details for Web of Science ID 000084052700015
View details for PubMedID 10597765
This study extends the results of a large randomized clinical trial of a multicomponent in-hospital smoking cessation intervention for general hospitalized smokers by examining subgroups of patients who responded to the intervention. The results, obtained using signal detection analysis, produced 6 subgroups of patients with varying degrees of intervention responsiveness. The subgroup most responsive was marked by 100% confidence to quit smoking at baseline. Among patients with less than 100% confidence, confidence interacted with age, depressed mood scores, addiction scores, and alcohol intake to discriminate 5 additional subgroups. Discussion focuses on how this information can be used in clinical decision making to treat subpopulations of smokers and directs attention to possible areas of underlying biopsychosocial processes that may interact to affect successful long-term cessation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000078454700003
View details for PubMedID 10028205
This study examined the effects of a nurse-case-managed, multifactorial, risk-reduction program on psychological distress among patients after myocardial infarction (MI).Five hundred eighty-five men and women aged 70 years or younger, who were hospitalized for acute MI in one of five San Francisco Bay Area hospitals, were randomized to receive a nurse-managed, home-based, multifactorial risk-reduction program (n = 293) or usual care (n = 292). The program, which began in the hospital, included a brief screen for five areas of psychological distress with further evaluation if indicated, monitoring during the follow-up phone calls, and referral for mental health treatment if needed. Patients were assessed with single-item scales at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. Separate analyses were performed for patients with moderate-to-severe levels on the psychological distress domains and for those with low levels.There was a significant reduction in the psychological distress variables for all patient groups between baseline and 12 months. The program had a significant effect on reducing anxiety in the patient group with low levels of anxiety and reducing anger in the patient group with frequent episodes of anger but, overall, the treatment and control groups showed equal levels of improvement.Among patients post-MI without complications, psychological distress decreases significantly during the 12 months after MI.
View details for PubMedID 9187981
Few research studies have evaluated the effectiveness of smoking interventions in hospitalized patients. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of 2 smoking cessation programs in patients hospitalized in 4 community hospitals in a large health maintenance organization within the San Francisco Bay Area in California.Patients were randomly assigned to usual care (n = 990), nurse-mediated, behaviorally oriented inpatient counseling focused on relapse prevention with 1 postdischarge telephone contact (minimal intervention, n = 473), or the same inpatient counseling with 4 postdischarge telephone contacts (intensive intervention, n = 561). The main outcome measure, smoking cessation rate, was corroborated by plasma cotinine determination or family confirmation, 1 year after enrollment.At 1 year smoking cessation rates were 27%, 22%, and 20% for intensive intervention, minimal intervention, and usual care groups, respectively (P = .009 for intensive vs usual care). Subgroup analyses by diagnosis revealed that the odds of cessation among patients with cardiovascular disease or other internal medical conditions were greater among those receiving the intensive intervention than among their counterparts receiving usual care (odds ratios, 1.6 and 2.0, respectively).A multicomponent smoking cessation program consisting of physician advice; in-hospital, nurse-mediated counseling; and multiple postdischarge telephone contacts was effective in increasing smoking cessation rates among hospitalized smokers. Hospital-wide smoking cessation programs could substantially increase the effectiveness of hospital smoking bans.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WJ25400005
View details for PubMedID 9046892
To describe the development of a computer-based system for dietary management of hyperlipidemia and to evaluate its efficacy for lowering plasma cholesterol level.Using a stepwise approach, we developed and tested a three-part self-management system in five consecutive clinical studies. Each study assessed plasma cholesterol levels before and after dietary intervention using the system. These studies enabled progressive refinement of (a) a food frequency questionnaire used to assess food intake in the preceding month; (b) computer-generated progress reports, based on questionnaire responses, offering dietary change subgoals and strategies for change; and (c) a dietary workbook providing detailed information on how to achieve goals.Persons with hyperlipidemia (n=814) were enrolled from worksite and clinical settings in the San Francisco Bay area of California. The attrition rate after randomization was 5%.Elements of the dietary intervention evolved in response to the results of five clinical studies. In each study, patients underwent a form of baseline assessment of dietary intake followed by counseling/instruction by various means. Follow-up dietary assessments were provided at specific intervals to facilitate subjects' progress toward their dietary goals. A dietary workbook provided the detailed instruction required to implement the recommendations contained in the periodic progress reports.Changes in plasma cholesterol level were measured by paired and unpaired t tests. The relationship between the reported reduction in dietary fat and cholesterol level assessed by food frequency questionnaires and the directly measured change in plasma cholesterol level was measured by multiple linear regression.The three major elements of the final computerized system (food frequency questionnaires, computer-generated progress reports, and dietary workbook) were developed and refined in the course of the five clinical studies. Reductions in total plasma cholesterol level of 5.0% to 6.5% achieved by participants in all five studies were consistent with self-reported reductions in intake of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol. Therefore, the computerized self-management system appears to be an effective tool for reducing plasma cholesterol levels.A computer-based system for dietary self-management of hyperlipidemia, implemented by mail, was effective in short-term studies. This self-management system can potentially provide health-promoting services to large numbers of people at low cost.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WG18100006
View details for PubMedID 9020241
This study evaluated a nurse-managed smoking cessation program for smokers hospitalized for a variety of conditions.Hospitalized patients who smoked prior to hospitalization and who were motivated to quit (n = 660) were randomized to intervention or usual-care groups and followed for the next year. The intervention included a meeting with the nurse-case manager; the use of a videotape, workbook, relaxation audiotape, and nicotine replacement therapy; and nurse-initiated phone contacts after discharge.The 12-month confirmed cessation rates were 21% and 31% for, respectively, the usual-care and intervention groups (odds ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 2.3).A nurse-managed smoking cessation intervention can significantly increase cessation rates for hospitalized patients.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VT36300010
View details for PubMedID 8916520
The MULTIFIT system provides an infrastructure for the management of coronary risk factors and associated conditions. It is well integrated into standard medical practice, relying on existing personnel, facilities, and equipment. It integrates cognitive, executive, and organizational aspects of medical care delivery. It addresses an important national health goal: how to substitute relatively inexpensive preventive care for expensive palliative care for patients with established vascular disease.
View details for PubMedID 9072287
To evaluate the efficacy of a physician-directed, nurse-managed, home-based case-management system for coronary risk factor modification.Randomized clinical trial in which patients received a special intervention (n = 293) or usual medical care (n = 292) during the first year after acute myocardial infarction.5 Kaiser Permanente Medical Centers in the San Francisco Bay area.585 men and women aged 70 years or younger who were hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction.In the hospital, specially trained nurses initiated interventions for smoking cessation, exercise training, and diet-drug therapy for hyperlipidemia. Intervention after discharge was implemented primarily by telephone and mail contact with patients in their homes. All medically eligible patients received exercise training; all smokers received the smoking cessation intervention; and all patients received dietary counseling and, if needed, lipid-lowering drug therapy.Smoking prevalence and plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) concentrations were measured 2 months after infarction, and functional capacity was measured 6 months after infarction.In the special intervention and usual care groups, the cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation rates were 70% and 53% (P = 0.03), plasma LDL cholesterol levels were 2.77 +/- 0.69 mmol/L and 3.41 +/- 0.90 mmol/L (107 +/- 30 mg/dL and 132 +/- 30 mg/dL) (P = 0.001), and functional capacities were 9.3 +/- 2.4 METS and 8.4 +/- 2.5 METS (P = 0.001), respectively.In a large health maintenance organization, a case-management system was considerably more effective than usual medical care for modification of coronary risk factors after myocardial infarction.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NH25100001
View details for PubMedID 8147544
In the era of thrombolysis, exercise training for patients with ischemic heart disease should be reserved for enhancement of functional capacity and psychological well-being rather than improvement of prognosis. Low to moderate intensity exercise training enhances functional capacity to the same extent that group-based exercise training does and can be performed safely at home. The physical demands of occupational work have decreased to the point where patients with ischemic heart disease who manifest neither treadmill-induced myocardial ischemia nor left ventricular dysfunction can perform virtually any occupational task.
View details for PubMedID 8508454
An estimated 40 million Americans have serum cholesterol levels that warrant medically supervised dietary intervention. Although registered dietitians are expected to play an important role in treating these patients, current treatment practices in the community are largely unknown.A questionnaire concerning treatment practices was mailed to all 377 registered dietitians listed in the directories of the American Dietetic Association for two large California districts. Number of patients seen and length and content of dietary counseling were ascertained for three types of patients: (a) hypercholesterolemic outpatients without heart disease, (b) hypercholesterolemic outpatients who have heart disease, and (c) inpatients with myocardial infarction.A return rate of 59% (n = 252) was obtained for the questionnaire. A total of 44% of the registered dietitians counseled hypercholesterolemic patients in any of the categories surveyed. About 30% of the respondents counseled hypercholesterolemic outpatients without heart disease. They saw an average of 4.9 such patients a week, spent an average of 53 min in an initial session, and usually did not see the patient again in follow-up. Fewer than 10% of patients had as many as four sessions. About 27% of the respondents saw hypercholesterolemic outpatients with heart disease, averaging 3.5 such contacts per week. The reported practices were similar to those provided to noncardiac outpatients. About 22% of registered dietitians worked with hospitalized myocardial infarction patients. They spent an average of a total of 41 min over 2.5 visits with each patient.Currently, outpatient registered dietitian counseling for hypercholesterolemia appears to be limited in both the number of patients reached and the duration of the counseling. Further research into the impact of, barriers to, and efficacy of alternative delivery methods of dietary counseling is needed.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JW80000007
View details for PubMedID 1438119
--To determine the effectiveness of group- vs home-based exercise training of higher and lower intensities among healthy, sedentary older adults.--Year-long randomized, controlled trial comparing (1) higher-intensity group-based exercise training; (2) higher-intensity home-based exercise training; (3) lower-intensity home-based exercise training; or (4) assessment-only control.--General community located in northern California.--One hundred sixty women and 197 men 50 to 65 years of age who were sedentary and free of cardiovascular disease. One out of nine persons contacted through a community random-digit-dial telephone survey and citywide promotion were randomized.--For higher-intensity exercise training, three 40-minute endurance training sessions per week were prescribed at 73% to 88% of peak treadmill heart rate. For lower-intensity exercise training, five 30-minute endurance training sessions per week were prescribed at 60% to 73% of peak treadmill heart rate.--Treadmill exercise test performance, exercise participation rates, and heart disease risk factors.--Compared with controls, subjects in all three exercise training conditions showed significant improvements in treadmill exercise test performance at 6 and 12 months (P less than .03). Lower-intensity exercise training achieved changes comparable with those of higher-intensity exercise training. Twelve-month exercise adherence rates were better for the two home-based exercise training conditions relative to the group-based exercise training condition (P less than .0005). There were no significant training-induced changes in lipid levels, weight, or blood pressure.--We conclude that (1) this community-based exercise training program improved fitness but not heart disease risk factors among sedentary, healthy older adults; (2) home-based exercise was as effective as group exercise in producing these changes; (3) lower-intensity exercise training was as effective as higher-intensity exercise training in the home setting; and (4) the exercise programs were relatively safe.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991GE45800034
View details for PubMedID 1880885
While worksite exercise programs offer a number of potential advantages with respect to increasing physical activity levels in American adults, typical participation rates remain relatively low. The purpose of this study was to explore employee preferences and needs related to physical activity programming in a major work setting in northern California. Two-thirds (399) of a randomly selected sample of employees responded to a mailed survey. Male and female employees reporting no regular aerobic activity over the past two years more strongly endorsed a number of erroneous beliefs concerning exercise, reported less support for engaging in exercise both at home and at work, and avoided even routine types of activity to a greater extent than more active individuals (p values less than 0.001). Current exercisers reported use of a greater number and variety of motivational strategies as part of their exercise program than past exercisers who were not currently active (p less than 0.001). Respondents, regardless of exercise status and age, reported preferences for moderate-intensity activity occurring away from the workplace which could be performed on one's own rather than in a group or class. Implications of the findings with respect to development of educational and behavioral programs for the current employee population are discussed.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DX06600004
View details for PubMedID 2228630
To determine the effect of a nurse-managed intervention for smoking cessation in patients who have had a myocardial infarction.Randomized, with a 6-month treatment period and a 6-month follow-up.Kaiser Foundation hospitals in Redwood City, Santa Clara, Hayward, and San Jose, California.Sequential sample of 173 patients, 70 years of age or younger, who were smoking before hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. Eighty-six patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and 87 to usual care; 130 patients (75%) completed the study and were available for follow-up.Nurse-managed and focused on preventing relapse to smoking, the intervention was initiated in the hospital and maintained thereafter primarily through telephone contact. Patients were given an 18-page manual that emphasized how to identify and cope with high-risk situations for smoking relapse.One year after myocardial infarction, the smoking cessation rate, verified biochemically, was 71% in the intervention group compared with 45% in the usual care group, a 26% difference (95% CI, 9.5% to 42.6%). Assuming that all surviving patients lost to follow-up were smoking, the 12-month smoking cessation rate was 61% in the intervention group compared with 32% in the usual care group, a 29% difference (95% CI, 14.5% to 43.5%). Patients who either resumed smoking within 3 weeks after infarction or expressed little intention of stopping in the hospital were unlikely to have stopped by 12 months.A nurse-managed smoking cessation intervention largely conducted by telephone, initiated in the hospital, and focused on relapse prevention can significantly reduce smoking rates at 12 months in patients who have had a myocardial infarction.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DN08300006
View details for PubMedID 2360750
To evaluate the "threshold" duration of exercise required to produce training effects, 18 healthy men aged 51 +/- 6 years completing 30 minutes of exercise training/day were compared with 18 men aged 52 +/- 6 years completing three 10-minute bouts of exercise/day, each separated by at least 4 hours. Exercise training intensity was moderate (65 to 75% of peak treadmill heart rate). During the 8-week study period VO2 max increased significantly in both groups from 33.3 +/- 3.2 to 37.9 +/- 3.5 ml/kg/min in men performing long exercise bouts and from 32.1 +/- 4.6 to 34.5 +/- 4.5 ml/kg/min in men performing short exercise bouts (p less than 0.05 within and between groups). Adherence to unsupervised exercise training performed at home and at work by men in long and short bouts was high; total duration of training completed was 96 and 93% of the prescribed amount and total number of sessions completed was 92 and 93% of that prescribed, respectively. In both groups exercise heart rate measured by a portable microprocessor was within or above the prescribed range for greater than 85% of the prescribed duration. Thus, multiple short bouts of moderate-intensity exercise training significantly increase peak oxygen uptake. For many individuals short bouts of exercise training may fit better into a busy schedule than a single long bout.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990CY75700010
View details for PubMedID 2327335
The economic consequences of an Occupational Work Evaluation designed to identify low risk patients recovering from uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and hasten their return to work was evaluated in a randomized trial. Two hundred one employed, clinically low risk men recovering from AMI were randomized to undergo an intervention (intervention group, 99 patients) consisting of an Occupational Work Evaluation or to receive usual care (usual care group, 102 patients). The time to return to work was reduced from 75 days in usual care patients to 51 days in intervention patients (p less than 0.002). Significant differences were found between groups for medical costs and occupational income during follow-up. Total medical costs per patient were lower in the intervention patients than in the usual care patients in the 6 months after AMI ($2,970 vs $3,472). Occupational income per patient was higher in intervention patients than in the usual care group in the 6 months after AMI ($9,655 vs $7,553). The per capita benefit accounting for medical costs and occupational income was $6,685 for intervention patients and $4,081 for usual care patients. Projected to the greater than 300,000 low risk, employed survivors of AMI annually in this country, the savings generated by the Occupational Work Evaluation could yield an annual economic benefit greater than 800 million dollars.
View details for Web of Science ID A1989U715200004
View details for PubMedID 2499172
A wide variety of specialized laboratory tests have been used to characterize prognosis and functional capacity soon after a patient has an acute myocardial infarction. Few attempts have been made to integrate the available data on these tests into clinically relevant guidelines for the clinician. This review evaluates the use of these tests, alone and in combination, throughout the course of recovery from acute myocardial infarction. The primary objective of these tests is to quantify myocardial ischemia and left ventricular dysfunction, the pathophysiologic basis of prognosis and functional capacity. The selection of one test over another depends on whether either test provides information on myocardial ischemia and left ventricular dysfunction not available through the standard clinical evaluation, and the risk, quality, and cost associated with each test. The stepwise application of specialized testing after acute myocardial infarction enables the identification of three groups of patients: approximately 20% at very high risk, due primarily to irreversible left ventricular dysfunction; approximately 30% at moderately high risk, due primarily to myocardial ischemia; and approximately 50% at low risk who are free of significant left ventricular dysfunction or myocardial ischemia. Accurate discrimination among these three groups enables the application of aggressive medical and surgical therapy to patients at moderate to high risk and accelerated recovery for patients at low risk. Specialized testing also helps to guide subsequent management after thrombolysis and revascularization procedures.
View details for Web of Science ID A1989T721500010
View details for PubMedID 2493212
Although a variety of psychological benefits have been attributed to regular exercise, few experimentally controlled studies of healthy individuals currently exist. One hundred twenty healthy, sedentary, middle-aged men and women were randomly assigned to either a 6-month home-based aerobic exercise training program or to an assessment-only control condition. Adherence across the 6-month period was found by both self-report and heart rate microprocessor methods to exceed 75% in both sexes. To assess changes in a variety of psychological variables over time, a 14-item Likert rating scale was completed and returned on a biweekly basis throughout the 6-month period. Slope analyses conducted on the 11 items attaining acceptable test-retest reliability coefficients showed significant between-groups differences on the 3 items most closely associated with the actual physical changes that occurred with exercise (all ps less than .004). Implications in relation to repeated measurement of psychological changes in nonclinical populations and the determination of the relevant population-, activity-, and program-specific parameters involved are discussed.
View details for Web of Science ID A1989AF90200003
View details for PubMedID 2767021
To determine if an occupational work evaluation could shorten the time to return to work, 201 employed men aged 49 +/- 7 years who were recovering from uncomplicated myocardial infarction were randomized to usual care (n = 102) or to an occupational work evaluation (n = 99). The occupational work evaluation consisted of a symptom-limited treadmill test performed 23 +/- 3 days after myocardial infarction and a formal recommendation to the patient and primary physician that the patient return to work within the next two weeks. The groups did not differ in age, medical status, comorbid disease, occupation type, or years on the job. At six months, 92% of patients receiving the intervention and 88% of patients receiving usual care were working either full- or part-time. Return to full-time work occurred at a median of 51 days in patients receiving the intervention and 75 days in patients receiving usual care. This 32% reduction in the convalescence period was associated with +2102 of additional earned salary per intervention patient in the six months after myocardial infarction. One or more recurrent cardiac events occurred in 14 intervention patients (one death, one nonfatal myocardial infarction, three angioplasties, and nine coronary surgeries) and in 13 usual-care patients (two deaths, three nonfatal myocardial infarctions, six angioplasties, and seven coronary surgeries) in the six months after myocardial infarction. The early return to work of low-risk patients based on an occupational work evaluation is associated with important economic benefits.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988P049200024
View details for PubMedID 3385897
Two studies were undertaken to compare strategies for the adoption and maintenance of moderate-intensity, home-based exercise training. In the study of adoption, 52 men and women who had served for 6 months as controls for a study of moderate-intensity, home-based exercise training received 30 minutes of baseline instruction. They were then randomized to receive continuing instruction and support through 10 staff-initiated telephone contacts of 5 minutes each every 2 weeks, or to receive no telephone contacts. In subjects receiving telephone contacts, peak oxygen uptake increased significantly after 6 months, whereas no increase was observed in subjects receiving no staff support (p less than 0.05). In the maintenance study, 51 men and women who had significantly increased their peak oxygen uptake by 6 months of moderate-intensity, home-based exercise training were randomized to undergo daily self-monitoring and receive adherence instructions, or undergo weekly self-monitoring only, during a second 6-month period of training. Subjects performing daily self-monitoring reported completing significantly more exercise training sessions during the 6 months of training than subjects performing weekly self-monitoring; functional capacity in both groups remained higher than before training (p less than 0.05). Taken together, these studies suggest that brief baseline instruction followed by continuing telephone contact with staff can be used to help people adopt a moderate-intensity, home-based exercise training program that can be maintained by simple self-monitoring strategies.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988N611800025
View details for PubMedID 3344690
To determine the influence of exercise training on smoking after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), smoking rates in 42 pre-AMI smokers assigned to exercise training were compared with 26 pre-AMI smokers assigned to no training. Exercise training occurred 3-26 weeks after AMI. The increase in functional capacity in 3-26 weeks was significantly greater in training than in no-training patients: 1.8 vs. 1.2 METs respectively (p less than 0.05). Adherence to exercise training was higher in non-smokers and former smokers than in those who continued to smoke: 89% and 88% vs. 80% respectively (NS). The prevalence of smoking 6 months post-AMI was lower in training than in no-training patients: 31% vs. 39% respectively (NS). Plasma thiocyanates collected on a random sample of 42 patients suggested that 19% of patients who are smoking after MI fail to report doing so. Self-reported cigarette consumption at 28 weeks was half as great in training as in no-training patients: 11 +/- 7 vs. 22 +/- 16 cigarettes per day (p less than 0.03). Firm advice to stop smoking followed by medically supervised exercise training with frequent followup reduces self-reported cigarette consumption in patients after AMI.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q956300003
View details for PubMedID 3239464
Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in both sexes and adversely affects patients' quality of life and well being. Given the frequent association between sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, in addition to the potential cardiac risk of sexual activity itself, a consensus panel was convened to develop recommendations for clinical management of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease. Based upon a review of the research and presentations by invited experts, a classification system was developed for stratification of patients into high, low, and intermediate categories of cardiac risk. The large majority of patients are in the low-risk category, which includes patients with (1) controlled hypertension; (2) mild, stable angina; (3) successful coronary revascularization; (4) a history of uncomplicated myocardial infarction (MI); (5) mild valvular disease; and (6) no symptoms and <3 cardiovascular risk factors. These patients can be safely encouraged to initiate or resume sexual activity or to receive treatment for sexual dysfunction. An important exception is the use of sildenafil in patients taking nitrates in any form. Patients in the intermediate-risk category include those with (1) moderate angina; (2) a recent MI (<6 weeks); (3) left ventricular dysfunction and/or class II congestive heart failure; (4) nonsustained low-risk arrhythmias; and (5) >/=3 risk factors for coronary artery disease. These patients should receive further cardiologic evaluation before restratification into the low- or high-risk category. Finally, patients in the high-risk category include those with (1) unstable or refractory angina; (2) uncontrolled hypertension; (3) congestive heart failure (class III or IV); (4) very recent MI (<2 weeks); (5) high-risk arrhythmias; (6) obstructive cardiomyopathies; and (7) moderate-to-severe valvular disease. These patients should be stabilized by specific treatment for their cardiac condition before resuming sexual activity or being treated for sexual dysfunction. A simple algorithm is provided for guiding physicians in the management of sexual dysfunction in patients with varying degrees of cardiac risk.
View details for Web of Science ID 000088341300016
View details for PubMedID 10899282
The cardiovascular tolerance for sex has largely been equated with physical activity, yet sexual arousal plays a major role. Exercise testing is useful, primarily for evaluating functional capacity, which reflects the extent of physical conditioning and the limitation imposed by symptoms of angina, dyspnea, and fatigue. Exercise testing, which is useful for evaluating functional capacity in sedentary patients, is generally unnecessary in physically active patients. Exercise testing, with or without radionuclide imaging, is of limited value in assessing the risk of future cardiovascular events-a limitation shared by all diagnostic tests, including coronary angiography. The absolute risks of coition-induced myocardial infarction (MI) or death are extremely low-on the order of 2 chances per million per hour in healthy middle-aged individuals or 20 chances per million per hour in "high-risk" patients with ischemic heart disease. This is equivalent to an annual risk of 1. 01% and 1.2%, respectively. Sex is a comparatively weak precipitant of acute coronary events, accounting for only 0.5-1.0% of all such events. The cardiovascular tolerance for sex in an individual can be characterized by the "functional reserve," that is, the extent to which the cardiovascular response to sex-measured by the heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen consumption-encroaches on the peak response to exercise. Cardiovascular symptoms during sex rarely occur in patients who do not experience similar symptoms during exercise testing at a level equivalent to 6 METS.
View details for Web of Science ID 000088341300014
View details for PubMedID 10899280
The health care system has the resources to assume an important role in primordial prevention. The extent to which it does so will be determined largely by the financial and economic forces that are transforming the health care system. There is reason to be optimistic about the effectiveness of a partnership between community-based organizations and medical centers in addressing the challenges of primordial prevention in the 21st century.
View details for Web of Science ID 000084471300011
View details for PubMedID 10641819