Clinical Focus

  • Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • Neonatology

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Internship:Yale University School of Medicine (1996) CT
  • Medical Education:UC Berkeley School of Public Health (1981) CA
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1973)
  • Fellowship:UCSD School of Medicine (1972) CA
  • Residency:Yale University School of Medicine (1968) CT
  • Board Certification: Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (1975)
  • Medical Education:University of Rochester School of Medicine (1965) NY
  • MD, U.Rochester School of Medicine, Medicine (1965)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Gould is director of the Perinatal Epidemiology and Health Outcomes Research Unit in the division of Neonatology at the School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital. He also directs the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, a network of 104 California hospitals that provide intensive care to newborns that have volunteered to submit and compare uniform care processes and outcome data and conduct quality improvement initiatives for their mothers and newborns.
Gould is a leading public health researcher in population-based studies related to neonatal and perinatal diseases. Much of his research is focused on developing strategies to assess the quality of perinatal care based on risk-adjusted indicators of neonatal morbidity.


2014-15 Courses


Journal Articles

  • Combined elevated midpregnancy tumor necrosis factor alpha and hyperlipidemia in pregnancies resulting in early preterm birth. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L., Ryckman, K. K., Bedell, B., O'Brodovich, H. M., Gould, J. B., Lyell, D. J., Borowski, K. S., Shaw, G. M., Murray, J. C., Stevenson, D. K. 2014; 211 (2): 141 e1-9


    The objective of the study was to determine whether pregnancies resulting in early preterm birth (PTB) (<30 weeks) were more likely than term pregnancies to have elevated midtrimester serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels combined with lipid patterns suggestive of hyperlipidemia.In 2 nested case-control samples drawn from California and Iowa cohorts, we examined the frequency of elevated midpregnancy serum TNF-α levels (in the fourth quartile [4Q]) and lipid patterns suggestive of hyperlipidemia (eg, total cholesterol, low-density-lipoproteins, or triglycerides in the 4Q, high-density lipoproteins in the first quartile) (considered independently and by co-occurrence) in pregnancies resulting in early PTB compared with those resulting in term birth (n = 108 in California and n = 734 in Iowa). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated in logistic regression models were used for comparisons.Early preterm pregnancies were 2-4 times more likely than term pregnancies to have a TNF-α level in the 4Q co-occurring with indicators of hyperlipidemia (37.5% vs 13.9% in the California sample (adjusted OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-16.3) and 26.3% vs 14.9% in the Iowa sample (adjusted OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3). No differences between early preterm and term pregnancies were observed when TNF-α or target lipid abnormalities occurred in isolation. Observed differences were not explicable to any maternal or infant characteristics.Pregnancies resulting in early PTB were more likely than term pregnancies to have elevated midpregnancy TNF-α levels in combination with lipid patterns suggestive of hyperlipidemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.02.019

    View details for PubMedID 24831886

  • Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth PAEDIATRIC AND PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY Shaw, G. M., Wise, P. H., Mayo, J., Carmichael, S. L., Ley, C., Lyell, D. J., Shachar, B. Z., Melsop, K., Phibbs, C. S., Stevenson, D. K., Parsonnet, J., Gould, J. B. 2014; 28 (4): 302-311


    Findings from studies examining risk of preterm birth associated with elevated prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistent.Within a large population-based cohort, we explored associations between prepregnancy BMI and spontaneous preterm birth across a spectrum of BMI, gestational age, and racial/ethnic categories. We analysed data for 989 687 singleton births in California, 2007-09. Preterm birth was grouped as 20-23, 24-27, 28-31, or 32-36 weeks gestation (compared with 37-41 weeks). BMI was categorised as <18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0-34.9 (obese I); 35.0-39.9 (obese II); and ≥40.0 (obese III). We assessed associations between BMI and spontaneous preterm birth of varying severity among non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Black women.Analyses of mothers without hypertension and diabetes, adjusted for age, education, height, and prenatal care initiation, showed obesity categories I-III to be associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth at 20-23 and 24-27 weeks among those of parity 1 in each race/ethnic group. Relative risks for obese III and preterm birth at 20-23 weeks were 6.29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.06, 12.9], 4.34 [95% CI 2.30, 8.16], and 4.45 [95% CI 2.53, 7.82] for non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics, respectively. A similar, but lower risk, pattern was observed for women of parity ≥2 and preterm birth at 20-23 weeks. Underweight was associated with modest risks for preterm birth at ≥24 weeks among women in each racial/ethnic group regardless of parity.The association between women's prepregnancy BMI and risk of spontaneous preterm birth is complex and is influenced by race/ethnicity, gestational age, and parity.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ppe.12125

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337614300005

  • Baby-MONITOR: A Composite Indicator of NICU Quality. Pediatrics Profit, J., Kowalkowski, M. A., Zupancic, J. A., Pietz, K., Richardson, P., Draper, D., Hysong, S. J., Thomas, E. J., Petersen, L. A., Gould, J. B. 2014; 134 (1): 74-82


    NICUs vary in the quality of care delivered to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. NICU performance on 1 measure of quality only modestly predicts performance on others. Composite measurement of quality of care delivery may provide a more comprehensive assessment of quality. The objective of our study was to develop a robust composite indicator of quality of NICU care provided to VLBW infants that accurately discriminates performance among NICUs.We developed a composite indicator, Baby-MONITOR, based on 9 measures of quality chosen by a panel of experts. Measures were standardized, equally weighted, and averaged. We used the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative database to perform across-sectional analysis of care given to VLBW infants between 2004 and 2010. Performance on the Baby-MONITOR is not an absolute marker of quality but indicates overall performance relative to that of the other NICUs. We used sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the composite indicator, by varying assumptions and methods.Our sample included 9023 VLBW infants in 22 California regional NICUs. We found significant variations within and between NICUs on measured components of the Baby-MONITOR. Risk-adjusted composite scores discriminated performance among this sample of NICUs. Sensitivity analysis that included different approaches to normalization, weighting, and aggregation of individual measures showed the Baby-MONITOR to be robust (r = 0.89-0.99).The Baby-MONITOR may be a useful tool to comprehensively assess the quality of care delivered by NICUs.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2013-3552

    View details for PubMedID 24918221

  • Investigation of maternal environmental exposures in association with self-reported preterm birth REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY Patel, C. J., Yang, T., Hu, Z., Wen, Q., Sung, J., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Cohen, H., Gould, J., Stevenson, D. K., Shaw, G. M., Ling, X. B., Butte, A. J. 2014; 45: 1-7


    Identification of maternal environmental factors influencing preterm birth risks is important to understand the reasons for the increase in prematurity since 1990. Here, we utilized a health survey, the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to search for personal environmental factors associated with preterm birth. 201 urine and blood markers of environmental factors, such as allergens, pollutants, and nutrients were assayed in mothers (range of N: 49-724) who answered questions about any children born preterm (delivery <37 weeks). We screened each of the 201 factors for association with any child born preterm adjusting by age, race/ethnicity, education, and household income. We attempted to verify the top finding, urinary bisphenol A, in an independent study of pregnant women attending Lucile Packard Children's Hospital. We conclude that the association between maternal urinary levels of bisphenol A and preterm birth should be evaluated in a larger epidemiological investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.reprotox.2013.12.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336415800001

  • Swedish and American studies show that initiatives to decrease maternal obesity could play a key role in reducing preterm birth(+) ACTA PAEDIATRICA Gould, J. B., Mayo, J., Shaw, G. M., Stevenson, D. K. 2014; 103 (6): 586-591


    Maternal obesity is a major source of preventable perinatal morbidity, but studies of the relationship between obesity and preterm birth have been inconsistent. This review looks at two major studies covering just under 3.5 million births, from California, USA, and Sweden.Inconsistent findings in previous studies appear to stem from the complex relationship between obesity and preterm birth. Initiatives to decrease maternal obesity represent an important strategy in reducing preterm birth.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apa.12616

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335754700012

    View details for PubMedID 24575829

  • Cytomegalovirus infection among infants in California neonatal intensive care units, 2005-2010 JOURNAL OF PERINATAL MEDICINE Lanzieri, T. M., Bialek, S. R., Bennett, M. V., Gould, J. B. 2014; 42 (3): 393-399


    To assess the burden of congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease among infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).CMV infection was defined as a report of positive CMV viral culture or polymerase chain reaction at any time since birth in an infant hospitalized in a NICU reporting to California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative during 2005-2010.One hundred and fifty-six (1.7 per 1000) infants were reported with CMV infection, representing an estimated 5% of the expected number of live births with symptomatic CMV disease. Prevalence was higher among infants with younger gestational ages and lower birth weights. Infants with CMV infection had significantly longer hospital stays and 14 (9%) died.Reported prevalence of CMV infection in NICUs represents a fraction of total expected disease burden from CMV in the newborn period, likely resulting from underdiagnosis and milder symptomatic cases that do not require NICU care. More complete ascertainment of infants with congenital CMV infection that would benefit from antiviral treatment may reduce the burden of CMV disease in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1515/jpm-2013-0183

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338934600018

    View details for PubMedID 24334425

  • Population-Level Correlates of Preterm Delivery among Black and White Women in the US PLOS ONE Carmichael, S. L., Cullen, M. R., Mayo, J. A., Gould, J. B., Loftus, P., Stevenson, D. K., Wise, P. H., Shaw, G. M. 2014; 9 (4)
  • Population-level correlates of preterm delivery among black and white women in the U.S. PloS one Carmichael, S. L., Cullen, M. R., Mayo, J. A., Gould, J. B., Loftus, P., Stevenson, D. K., Wise, P. H., Shaw, G. M. 2014; 9 (4)


    This study examined the ability of social, demographic, environmental and health-related factors to explain geographic variability in preterm delivery among black and white women in the US and whether these factors explain black-white disparities in preterm delivery.We examined county-level prevalence of preterm delivery (20-31 or 32-36 weeks gestation) among singletons born 1998-2002. We conducted multivariable linear regression analysis to estimate the association of selected variables with preterm delivery separately for each preterm/race-ethnicity group.The prevalence of preterm delivery varied two- to three-fold across U.S. counties, and the distributions were strikingly distinct for blacks and whites. Among births to blacks, regression models explained 46% of the variability in county-level risk of delivery at 20-31 weeks and 55% for delivery at 32-36 weeks (based on R-squared values). Respective percentages for whites were 67% and 71%. Models included socio-environmental/demographic and health-related variables and explained similar amounts of variability overall.Much of the geographic variability in preterm delivery in the US can be explained by socioeconomic, demographic and health-related characteristics of the population, but less so for blacks than whites.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0094153

    View details for PubMedID 24740117

  • A Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia PEDIATRICS Wang, H., St Julien, K. R., Stevenson, D. K., Hoffmann, T. J., Witte, J. S., Lazzeroni, L. C., Krasnow, M. A., Quaintance, C. C., Oehlert, J. W., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L., Gould, J. B., Shaw, G. M., O'Brodovich, H. M. 2013; 132 (2): 290-297


    Twin studies suggest that heritability of moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is 53% to 79%, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants associated with the risk for BPD.The discovery GWAS was completed on 1726 very low birth weight infants (gestational age = 25(0)-29(6/7) weeks) who had a minimum of 3 days of intermittent positive pressure ventilation and were in the hospital at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. At 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, moderate-severe BPD cases (n = 899) were defined as requiring continuous supplemental oxygen, whereas controls (n = 827) inhaled room air. An additional 795 comparable infants (371 cases, 424 controls) were a replication population. Genomic DNA from case and control newborn screening bloodspots was used for the GWAS. The replication study interrogated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the discovery GWAS and those within the HumanExome beadchip.Genotyping using genomic DNA was successful. We did not identify SNPs associated with BPD at the genome-wide significance level (5 × 10(-8)) and no SNP identified in previous studies reached statistical significance (Bonferroni-corrected P value threshold .0018). Pathway analyses were not informative.We did not identify genomic loci or pathways that account for the previously described heritability for BPD. Potential explanations include causal mutations that are genetic variants and were not assayed or are mapped to many distributed loci, inadequate sample size, race ethnicity of our study population, or case-control differences investigated are not attributable to underlying common genetic variation.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2013-0533

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322957300052

  • The Continuum of Maternal Sepsis Severity: Incidence and Risk Factors in a Population-Based Cohort Study PLOS ONE Acosta, C. D., Knight, M., Lee, H. C., Kurinczuk, J. J., Gould, J. B., Lyndon, A. 2013; 8 (7)


    To investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with uncomplicated maternal sepsis and progression to severe sepsis in a large population-based birth cohort.This retrospective cohort study used linked hospital discharge and vital statistics records data for 1,622,474 live births in California during 2005-2007. Demographic and clinical factors were adjusted using multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors.1598 mothers developed sepsis; incidence of all sepsis was 10 per 10,000 live births (95% CI = 9.4-10.3). Women had significantly increased adjusted odds (aOR) of developing sepsis if they were older (25-34 years: aOR = 1.29; ≥35 years: aOR = 1.41), had ≤high-school education (aOR = 1.63), public/no-insurance (aOR = 1.22) or a cesarean section (primary: aOR = 1.99; repeat: aOR = 1.25). 791 women progressed to severe sepsis; incidence of severe sepsis was 4.9 per 10,000 live births (95% CI = 4.5-5.2). Women had significantly increased adjusted odds of progressing to severe sepsis if they were Black (aOR = 2.09), Asian (aOR = 1.59), Hispanic (aOR = 1.42), had public/no-insurance (aOR = 1.52), delivered in hospitals with <1,000 births/year (aOR = 1.93), were primiparous (aOR = 2.03), had a multiple birth (aOR = 3.5), diabetes (aOR = 1.47), or chronic hypertension (aOR = 8.51). Preeclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage were also significantly associated with progression to severe sepsis (aOR = 3.72; aOR = 4.18). For every cumulative factor, risk of uncomplicated sepsis increased by 25% (95% CI = 17.4-32.3) and risk of progression to severe sepsis/septic shock increased by 57% (95% CI = 40.8-74.4).The rate of severe sepsis was approximately twice the 1991-2003 national estimate. Risk factors identified are relevant to obstetric practice given their cumulative risk effect and the apparent increase in severe sepsis incidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0067175

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321341000034

    View details for PubMedID 23843991

  • Association of early-preterm birth with abnormal levels of routinely collected first- and second-trimester biomarkers AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L., Shaw, G. M., Currier, R. J., Stevenson, D. K., Baer, R. J., O'Brodovich, H. M., Gould, J. B. 2013; 208 (6)


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between typically measured prenatal screening biomarkers and early-preterm birth in euploid pregnancies.The study included 345 early-preterm cases (<30 weeks of gestation) and 1725 control subjects who were drawn from a population-based sample of California pregnancies who had both first- and second-trimester screening results. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare patterns of biomarkers in cases and control subjects and to develop predictive models. Replicability of the biomarker early-preterm relationships that was revealed by the models was evaluated by examination of the frequency and associated adjusted relative risks (RRs) for early-preterm birth and for preterm birth in general (<37 weeks of gestation) in pregnancies with identified abnormal markers compared with pregnancies without these markers in a subsequent independent California cohort of screened pregnancies (n = 76,588).The final model for early-preterm birth included first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in the ≤5th percentile, second-trimester alpha-fetoprotein in the ≥95th percentile, and second-trimester inhibin in the ≥95th percentile (odds ratios, 2.3-3.6). In general, pregnancies in the subsequent cohort with a biomarker pattern that were found to be associated with early-preterm delivery in the first sample were at an increased risk for early-preterm birth and preterm birth in general (<37 weeks of gestation; adjusted RR, 1.6-27.4). Pregnancies with ≥2 biomarker abnormalities were at particularly increased risk (adjusted RR, 3.6-27.4).When considered across cohorts and in combination, abnormalities in routinely collected biomarkers reveal predictable risks for early-preterm birth.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.02.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320596600029

    View details for PubMedID 23395922

  • Hospital-wide breastfeeding rates vs. breastmilk provision for very-low-birth-weight infants ACTA PAEDIATRICA Lee, H. C., Jegatheesan, P., Gould, J. B., Dudley, R. A. 2013; 102 (3): 268-272


    To investigate the relationship between breastmilk feeding in very-low-birth-weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit and breastmilk feeding rates for all newborns by hospital.This was a cross-sectional study of 111 California hospitals in 2007 and 2008. Correlation coefficients were calculated between overall hospital breastfeeding rates and breastmilk feeding rates of very-low-birth-weight infants. Hospitals were categorized in quartiles by crude and adjusted very-low-birth-weight infant rates to compare rankings between measures.Correlation between breastmilk feeding rates of very-low-birth-weight infants and overall breastfeeding rates varied by neonatal intensive care unit level of care from 0.13 for intermediate hospitals to 0.48 for regional hospitals. For hospitals categorized in the top quartile according to overall breastfeeding rate, only 46% were in the top quartile for both crude and adjusted very-low-birth-weight infant rates. On the other hand, when considering the lowest quartile for overall breastfeeding hospitals, three of 27 (11%) actually were performing in the top quartile of performance for very-low-birth-weight infant rates.Reporting hospital overall breastfeeding rates and neonatal intensive care unit breastmilk provision rates separately may give an incomplete picture of quality of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apa.12096

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314656600022

    View details for PubMedID 23174012

  • Therapeutic hypothermia during neonatal transport: data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative (CPQCC) and California Perinatal Transport System (CPeTS) for 2010 JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Akula, V. P., Gould, J. B., DAVIS, A. S., Hackel, A., Oehlert, J., Van Meurs, K. P. 2013; 33 (3): 194-197


    To evaluate cooling practices and neonatal outcomes in the state of California during 2010 using the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative and California Perinatal Transport System databases.Database analysis to determine the perinatal and neonatal demographics and outcomes of neonates cooled in transport or after admission to a cooling center.Of the 223 infants receiving therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in California during 2010, 69% were cooled during transport. Despite the frequent use of cooling in transport, cooling center admission temperature was in the target range (33-34 °C) in only 62 (44%). Among cooled infants, gestational age was <35 weeks in 10 (4.5%). For outborn and transported infants, chronologic age at the time of cooling initiation was >6 h in 20 (11%). When initiated at the birth hospital, cooling was initiated at <6 h of age in 131 (92.9%).More than half of the infants cooled in transport do not achieve target temperature by the time of arrival at the cooling center. The use of cooling devices may improve temperature regulation on transport.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2012.144

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315664700006

    View details for PubMedID 23223159

  • Correlation of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Performance Across Multiple Measures of Quality of Care JAMA PEDIATRICS Profit, J., Zupancic, J. A., Gould, J. B., Pietz, K., Kowalkowski, M. A., Draper, D., Hysong, S. J., Petersen, L. A. 2013; 167 (1): 47-54


    To examine whether high performance on one measure of quality is associated with high performance on others and to develop a data-driven explanatory model of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) performance.We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis of a statewide perinatal care database. Risk-adjusted NICU ranks were computed for each of 8 measures of quality selected based on expert input. Correlations across measures were tested using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine whether underlying factors were driving the correlations.Twenty-two regional NICUs in California.In total, 5445 very low-birth-weight infants cared for between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2007.Pneumothorax, growth velocity, health care-associated infection, antenatal corticosteroid use, hypothermia during the first hour of life, chronic lung disease, mortality in the NICU, and discharge on any human breast milk.The NICUs varied substantially in their clinical performance across measures of quality. Of 28 unit-level correlations, 6 were significant (ρ < .05). Correlations between pairs of measures of quality of care were strong (ρ ≥ .5) for 1 pair, moderate (range, ρ ≥ .3 to ρ < .5) for 8 pairs, weak (range, ρ ≥ .1 to ρ < .3) for 5 pairs, and negligible (ρ < .1) for 14 pairs. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 underlying factors of quality in this sample. Pneumothorax, mortality in the NICU, and antenatal corticosteroid use loaded on factor 1; growth velocity and health care-associated infection loaded on factor 2; chronic lung disease loaded on factor 3; and discharge on any human breast milk loaded on factor 4.In this sample, the ability of individual measures of quality to explain overall quality of neonatal intensive care was modest.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.418

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316797500010

    View details for PubMedID 23403539

  • Variations in Definitions of Mortality Have Little Influence on Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Performance Ratings JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Profit, J., Gould, J. B., Draper, D., Zupancic, J. A., Kowalkowski, M. A., Woodard, L., Pietz, K., Petersen, L. A. 2013; 162 (1): 50-U320


    To measure the influence of varying mortality time frames on performance rankings among regional neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in a large state.We performed a cross-sectional data analysis of very low birth weight infants receiving care at 24 level 3 NICUs. We tested the effect of 4 definitions of mortality: (1) death between admission and end of birth hospitalization or up to 366 days; (2) death between 12 hours of age and the end of birth hospitalization or up to 366 days; (3) death between admission and 28 days; and (4) death between 12 hours of age and 28 days. NICUs were ranked by quantifying their deviation from risk-adjusted expected mortality and dividing them into 3 tiers: top 6, bottom 6, and in between.There was wide interinstitutional variation in risk-adjusted mortality for each definition (observed minus expected z-score range, -6.08 to 3.75). However, mortality-based NICU rankings and classification into performance tiers were very similar for all institutions in each of our time frames. Among all 4 definitions, NICU rank correlations were high (>0.91). Few NICUs changed relative to a neighboring tier with changes in definitions, and none changed by more than one tier.The time frame used to ascertain mortality had little effect on comparative NICU performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.06.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312915900012

    View details for PubMedID 22854328

  • Maternal morbidity during childbirth hospitalization in California JOURNAL OF MATERNAL-FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE Lyndon, A., Lee, H. C., Gilbert, W. M., Gould, J. B., Lee, K. A. 2012; 25 (12): 2529-2535


    To determine the incidence and risk factors for maternal morbidity during childbirth hospitalization.Maternal morbidities were determined using ICD9-CM and vital records codes from linked hospital discharge and vital records data for 1,572,909 singleton births in California during 2005-2007. Socio-demographic, obstetric and hospital volume risk factors were estimated using mixed effects logistic regression models.The maternal morbidity rate was 241/1000 births. The most common morbidities were episiotomy, pelvic trauma, maternal infection, postpartum hemorrhage and severe laceration. Preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.96; 95% confidence interval 2.8,3.13), maternal age over 35 years, (AOR: 1.92; 1.79,2.06), vaginal birth after cesarean, (AOR: 1.81; 1.47,2.23) and repeat cesarean birth (AOR: 1.99; 1.87,2.12) conferred the highest odds of severe morbidity. Non-white women were more likely to suffer morbidity.Nearly one in four California women experienced complications during childbirth hospitalization. Significant health disparities in maternal childbirth outcomes persist in the USA.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/14767058.2012.710280

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311678300011

    View details for PubMedID 22779781

  • Creating a Public Agenda for Maternity Safety and Quality in Cesarean Delivery OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Main, E. K., Morton, C. H., Melsop, K., Hopkins, D., Giuliani, G., Gould, J. B. 2012; 120 (5): 1194-1198


    Cesarean delivery rates in California and the United States rose by 50% between 1998 and 2008 and vary widely among states, regions, hospitals, and health care providers. The leading driver of both the rise and the variation is first-birth cesarean deliveries performed during labor. With the large increase in primary cesarean deliveries, repeat cesarean delivery now has emerged as the largest single indication. The economic costs, health risks, and negligible benefits for most mothers and newborns of these higher rates point to the urgent need for a new approach to working with women in labor. This commentary analyzes the high rates and wide variations and presents evidence of costs and risks associated with cesarean deliveries (complete discussion provided in the California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative White Paper at All stakeholders need to ask whether society can afford the costs and complications of this high cesarean delivery rate and whether they can work together toward solutions. The factors involved in the rise in cesarean deliveries point to the need for a multistrategy approach, because no single strategy is likely to be effective or lead to sustained change. We outline complementary strategies for reducing the rates and offer recommendations including clinical improvement strategies with careful examination of labor management practices; payment reform to eliminate negative or perverse incentives; education to recognize the value of vaginal birth; and full transparency through public reporting and continued public engagement.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31826fc13d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310512500027

    View details for PubMedID 23090538

  • Factors Associated with Failure to Screen Newborns for Retinopathy of Prematurity JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Bain, L. C., Dudley, R. A., Gould, J. B., Lee, H. C. 2012; 161 (5): 819-823


    To evaluate ROP screening rates in a population-based cohort; and to identify characteristics of patients that were missed.We used the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative data from 2005-2007 for a cross-sectional study. Using eligibility criteria, screening rates were calculated for each hospital. Multivariable regression was used to assess associations between patient clinical and sociodemographic factors and the odds of missing screening.Overall rates of missed ROP screening decreased from 18.6% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2007. Higher gestational age (OR = 1.25 for increase of 1 week, 95% CI, 1.21-1.29), higher birth weight (OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.10-1.15), and singleton birth (OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34) were associated with higher probability of missing screening. Level II neonatal intensive care units and neonatal intensive care units with lower volume were more likely to miss screenings.Although ROP screening rates improved over time, larger and older infants are at risk for not receiving screening. Furthermore, large variations in screening rates exist among hospitals in California. Identification of gaps in quality of care creates an opportunity to improve ROP screening rates and prevent impaired vision in this vulnerable population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.04.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310370600013

    View details for PubMedID 22632876

  • Missed Opportunities in the Referral of High-Risk Infants to Early Intervention PEDIATRICS Tang, B. G., Feldman, H. M., Huffman, L. C., Kagawa, K. J., Gould, J. B. 2012; 129 (6): 1027-1034


    Using a statewide population-based data source, we describe current neonatal follow-up referral practices for high-risk infants with developmental delays throughout California.From a cohort analysis of quality improvement data from 66 neonatal follow-up programs in the California Children's Services and California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative High-Risk Infant Follow-Up Quality of Care Initiative, 5129 high-risk infants were evaluated at the first visit between 4 and 8 months of age in neonatal follow-up. A total of 1737 high-risk infants were evaluated at the second visit between 12 and 16 months of age. We calculated referral rates in relation to developmental status (high versus low concern) based on standardized developmental testing or screening.Among infants with low concerns (standard score >70 or passed screen) at the first visit, 6% were referred to early intervention; among infants with high concerns, 28% of infants were referred to early intervention. Even after including referrals to other (private) therapies, 34% infants with high concerns did not receive any referrals. These rates were similar for the second visit.In spite of the specialization of neonatal follow-up programs to identify high-risk infants with developmental delays, a large proportion of potentially eligible infants were not referred to early intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2011-2720

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304707000036

    View details for PubMedID 22614772

  • Therapeutic Hypothermia during Neonatal Transport: Current Practices in California AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Akula, V. P., Davis, A. S., Gould, J. B., Van Meurs, K. 2012; 29 (5): 319-326


    Therapeutic hypothermia initiated at <6 hours of age reduces death and disability in newborns ? 36 weeks' gestation with moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Given the limited therapeutic window, cooling during transport becomes a necessity. Our goal was to describe the current practice of therapeutic hypothermia during transport used in the state of California. All level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) were contacted to identify those units providing therapeutic hypothermia. An electronic questionnaire was sent to obtain basic information. Responses were received from 28 (100%) NICUs performing therapeutic hypothermia; 26 NICUs were cooling newborns and two were in the process of program development. Eighteen (64%) centers had cooled a patient in transport, six had not yet cooled in transport, and two do not plan to cool in transport. All 18 centers use passive cooling, except for two that perform both passive and active cooling, and 17 of 18 centers recommend initiation of cooling at the referral hospital. Reported difficulties include overcooling, undercooling, and bradycardia. Cooling on transport is being performed by majority of NICUs providing therapeutic hypothermia. Clinical protocols and devices for cooling in transport are essential to ensure safety and efficacy.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0031-1295661

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302962200001

    View details for PubMedID 22143969

  • Risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia by second-trimester maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol PEDIATRIC RESEARCH Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L., Shaw, G. M., Stevenson, D. K., Oehlert, J. W., Quaintance, C., Santos, A. J., Baer, R. J., Currier, R. J., O'Brodovich, H. M., Gould, J. B. 2012; 71 (4): 399-406


    Although maternal serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonandotropin (hCG), and estriol play important roles in immunomodulation and immunoregulation during pregnancy, their relationship with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in young infants is unknown despite BPD being associated with pre- and postnatal inflammatory factors.We found that these serum biomarkers were associated with an increased risk of BPD. Risks were especially high when AFP and/or hCG levels were above the 95th percentile and/or when unconjugated estriol (uE3) levels were below the 5th percentile (relative risks (RRs) 3.1-6.7). Risks increased substantially when two or more biomarker risks were present (RRs 9.9-75.9).Data suggested that pregnancies that had a biomarker risk and yielded an offspring with BPD were more likely to have other factors present that suggested early intrauterine fetal adaptation to stress, including maternal hypertension and asymmetric growth restriction.The objective of this population-based study was to examine whether second-trimester levels of AFP, hCG, and uE3 were associated with an increased risk of BPD.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/pr.2011.73

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301884500013

    View details for PubMedID 22391642

  • Creating a Public Agenda for Maternity Safety and Quality in Cesarean Delivery. Obstetrics and gynecology Main, E. K., Morton, C. H., Melsop, K., Hopkins, D., Giuliani, G., Gould, J. B. 2012

    View details for PubMedID 23044535

  • Trends in Cesarean Delivery for Twin Births in the United States 1995-2008 OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B., Boscardin, W. J., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Blumenfeld, Y. J. 2011; 118 (5): 1095-1101


    To estimate trends and risk factors for cesarean delivery for twins in the United States.This was a cross-sectional study in which we calculated cesarean delivery rates for twins from 1995 to 2008 using National Center for Health Statistics data. We compared cesarean delivery rates by year and for vertex compared with breech presentation. The order of presentation for a given twin pair could not be determined from the available records and therefore analysis was based on individual discrete twin data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate independent risk factors, including year of birth and maternal factors, for cesarean delivery.Cesarean delivery rates for twin births increased steadily from 53.4% to 75.0% in 2008. Rates rose for the breech twin category (81.5%-92.1%) and the vertex twin category (45.1%-68.2%). The relative increase in the cesarean delivery rate for preterm and term neonates was similar. After risk adjustment, there was an average increase noted in cesarean delivery of 5% each year during the study period (risk ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.05).Cesarean delivery rates for twin births increased dramatically from 1995 to 2008. This increase is significantly higher than that which could be explained by an increase in cesarean delivery for breech presentation of either the presenting or second twin.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182318651

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296292600018

    View details for PubMedID 22015878

  • The Impact of Statistical Choices on Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Quality Ratings Based on Nosocomial Infection Rates ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Lee, H. C., Chien, A. T., Bardach, N. S., Clay, T., Gould, J. B., Dudley, R. A. 2011; 165 (5): 429-434


    To examine the extent to which performance assessment methods affect the percentage of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants included in performance assessments, the distribution of NICU performance ratings, and the level of agreement in those ratings.Cross-sectional study based on risk-adjusted nosocomial infection rates.NICUs belonging to the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative 2007-2008.One hundred twenty-six California NICUs and 10 487 VLBW infants.Three performance assessment choices: (1) excluding "low-volume" NICUs (those caring for <30 VLBW infants per year) vs a criterion based on confidence intervals, (2) using Bayesian vs frequentist hierarchical models, and (3) pooling data across 1 vs 2 years.Proportion of NICUs and patients included in quality assessment, distribution of ratings for NICUs, and agreement between methods using the ? statistic.Depending on the methods applied, 51% to 85% of NICUs and 72% to 96% of VLBW infants were included in performance assessments, 76% to 87% of NICUs were considered "average," and the level of agreement between NICU ratings ranged from 0.23 to 0.89.The percentage of NICUs included in performance assessments and their ratings can shift dramatically depending on performance measurement method. Physicians, payers, and policymakers should continue to closely examine which existing performance assessment methods are most appropriate for evaluating pediatric care quality.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290113500009

    View details for PubMedID 21536958

  • Hypothermia in very low birth weight infants: distribution, risk factors and outcomes JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Miller, S. S., Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2011; 31: S49-S56


    The objective of this study was to study the epidemiology of neonatal hypothermia in preterm infants using World Health Organization (WHO) temperature criteria.A population-based cohort of 8782 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born in California neonatal intensive care units in 2006 and 2007. Associations between admission hypothermia and maternal and neonatal characteristics and outcomes were determined using logistic regression.In all, 56.2% of infants were hypothermic. Low birth weight, cesarean delivery and a low Apgar score were associated with hypothermia. Spontaneous labor, prolonged rupture of membranes and antenatal steroid administration were associated with decreased risk of hypothermia. Moderate hypothermia was associated with higher risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Moderate and severe hypothermic conditions were associated with risk of death.Hypothermia by WHO criteria is prevalent in VLBW infants and is associated with IVH and mortality. Use of WHO criteria could guide the need for quality improvement projects targeted toward the most vulnerable infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2010.177

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289236900008

    View details for PubMedID 21448204

  • Nosocomial Infection Reduction in VLBW Infants With a Statewide Quality-Improvement Model PEDIATRICS Wirtschafter, D. D., Powers, R. J., Pettit, J. S., Lee, H. C., Boscardin, W. J., Subeh, M. A., Gould, J. B. 2011; 127 (3): 419-426


    To evaluate the effectiveness of the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative quality-improvement model using a toolkit supplemented by workshops and Web casts in decreasing nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants.This was a retrospective cohort study of continuous California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative members' data during the years 2002-2006. The primary dependent variable was nosocomial infection, defined as a late bacterial or coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection diagnosed after the age of 3 days by positive blood/cerebro-spinal fluid culture(s) and clinical criteria. The primary independent variable of interest was voluntary attendance at the toolkit's introductory event, a direct indicator that at least 1 member of an NICU team had been personally exposed to the toolkit's features rather than being only notified of its availability. The intervention's effects were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model that risk adjusted for selected demographic and clinical factors.During the study period, 7733 eligible very low birth weight infants were born in 27 quality-improvement participant hospitals and 4512 very low birth weight infants were born in 27 non-quality-improvement participant hospitals. For the entire cohort, the rate of nosocomial infection decreased from 16.9% in 2002 to 14.5% in 2006. For infants admitted to NICUs participating in at least 1 quality-improvement event, there was an associated decreased risk of nosocomial infection (odds ratio: 0.81 [95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.96]) compared with those admitted to nonparticipating hospitals.The structured intervention approach to quality improvement in the NICU setting, using a toolkit along with attendance at a workshop and/or Web cast, is an effective means by which to improve care outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2010-1449

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287845400043

    View details for PubMedID 21339273

  • Antenatal Steroid Administration for Premature Neonates in California OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lee, H. C., Lyndon, A., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Dudley, R. A., Gould, J. B. 2011; 117 (3): 603-609


    To estimate risk factors for premature neonates not receiving antenatal steroids in a population-based cohort and to determine whether the gains of a quality-improvement collaborative project on antenatal steroid administration were sustained long-term.Clinical data for premature neonates born in 2005–2007 were obtained from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, which collects data on more than 90% of neonatal admissions in California. Eligible neonates had a birth weight of less than 1,500 g or gestational age less than 34 weeks and were born at a Collaborative hospital. These data were linked to administrative data from California Vital Statistics. Sociodemographic and medical risk factors for not receiving antenatal steroids were determined. We also examined the effect of birth hospital participation in a previous quality-improvement collaborative project. A random effects logistic regression model was used to determine independent risk factors.Of 15,343 eligible neonates, 23.1% did not receive antenatal steroids in 2005–2007. Hispanic mothers (25.6%), mothers younger than age 20 (27.6%), and those without prenatal care (52.2%) were less likely to receive antenatal steroids. Mothers giving birth vaginally (26.8%) and mothers with a diagnosis of fetal distress (26.5%) were also less likely to receive antenatal steroids. Rupture of membranes before delivery and multiple gestations were associated with higher likelihood of antenatal steroid administration. Hospitals that participated in a quality-improvement collaborative in 1999– 2000 had higher rates of antenatal steroid administration (85% compared with 69%, P<.001).A number of eligible mothers do not receive antenatal steroids. Quality-improvement initiatives to improve antenatal steroid administration could target specific high-risk groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31820c3c9b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287649400013

    View details for PubMedID 21446208

  • Low Apgar score and mortality in extremely preterm neonates born in the United States ACTA PAEDIATRICA Lee, H. C., Subeh, M., Gould, J. B. 2010; 99 (12): 1785-1789


    To investigate the relationship between low Apgar score and neonatal mortality in preterm neonates.Infant birth and death certificate data from the US National Center for Health Statistics for 2001-2002 were analysed. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality for 690, 933 neonates at gestational ages 24-36 weeks. Mortality rates were calculated for each combination of gestational age and 5-min Apgar score. Relative risks of mortality, by high vs. low Apgar score, were calculated for each age.Distribution of Apgar scores depended on gestational age, the youngest gestational ages having higher proportions of low Apgar scores. Median Apgar score ranged from 6 at 24 weeks, to 9 at 30-36 weeks gestation. The relative risk of death was significantly higher at Apgar scores 0-3 vs. 7-10, including at the youngest gestational ages, ranging from 3.1 (95% confidence interval 2.9, 3.4) at 24 weeks to 18.5 (95% confidence interval 15.7, 21.8) at 28 weeks.? Low Apgar score was associated with increased mortality in premature neonates, including those at 24-28 weeks gestational age, and may be a useful tool for clinicians in assessing prognosis and for researchers as a risk prediction variable.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01935.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283690300010

    View details for PubMedID 20626363

  • Maternal Nativity Status and Birth Outcomes in Asian Immigrants JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT AND MINORITY HEALTH Qin, C., Gould, J. B. 2010; 12 (5): 798-805


    The study examines the relationship between maternal nativity, maternal risks and birth outcomes in six Asian sub-populations.U.S.- versus foreign-born immigrants of Chinese (67,222), Japanese (18,275) and Filipino (87,1208), Vietnamese (45,229), Cambodian/Laotian (21,237), and Korean (23,430) singleton live births were assessed for maternal risks and birth outcomes.U.S.-born Chinese and Japanese mothers had lower risk and increased preterm births but similar infant mortality, while U.S.-born Filipino mothers had higher risk and higher infant mortality. U.S.-born mothers of more recent Cambodian/Laotian and Vietnamese immigrants had higher risk and delivered more small and preterm births, while U.S.-born Korean mothers had higher risk but no differences in preterm and low birthweight delivery.Asians in America are a distinctly heterogenous population in terms of the relationship between maternal risk factors and birth outcomes and the influence of maternal nativity on this relationship.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10903-008-9215-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281506000022

    View details for PubMedID 19083097

  • Integration of Early Physiological Responses Predicts Later Illness Severity in Preterm Infants SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Saria, S., Rajani, A. K., Gould, J., Koller, D., Penn, A. A. 2010; 2 (48)


    Physiological data are routinely recorded in intensive care, but their use for rapid assessment of illness severity or long-term morbidity prediction has been limited. We developed a physiological assessment score for preterm newborns, akin to an electronic Apgar score, based on standard signals recorded noninvasively on admission to a neonatal intensive care unit. We were able to accurately and reliably estimate the probability of an individual preterm infant's risk of severe morbidity on the basis of noninvasive measurements. This prediction algorithm was developed with electronically captured physiological time series data from the first 3 hours of life in preterm infants (< or =34 weeks gestation, birth weight < or =2000 g). Extraction and integration of the data with state-of-the-art machine learning methods produced a probability score for illness severity, the PhysiScore. PhysiScore was validated on 138 infants with the leave-one-out method to prospectively identify infants at risk of short- and long-term morbidity. PhysiScore provided higher accuracy prediction of overall morbidity (86% sensitive at 96% specificity) than other neonatal scoring systems, including the standard Apgar score. PhysiScore was particularly accurate at identifying infants with high morbidity related to specific complications (infection: 90% at 100%; cardiopulmonary: 96% at 100%). Physiological parameters, particularly short-term variability in respiratory and heart rates, contributed more to morbidity prediction than invasive laboratory studies. Our flexible methodology of individual risk prediction based on automated, rapid, noninvasive measurements can be easily applied to a range of prediction tasks to improve patient care and resource allocation.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001304

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288436900003

    View details for PubMedID 20826840

  • Prediction of Death for Extremely Premature Infants in a Population-Based Cohort PEDIATRICS Lee, H. C., Green, C., Hintz, S. R., Tyson, J. E., Parikh, N. A., Langer, J., Gould, J. B. 2010; 126 (3): E644-E650


    Although gestational age (GA) is often used as the primary basis for counseling and decision-making for extremely premature infants, a study of tertiary care centers showed that additional factors could improve prediction of outcomes. Our objective was to determine how such a model could improve predictions for a population-based cohort.From 2005 to 2008, data were collected prospectively for the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, which encompasses 90% of NICUs in California. For infants born at GAs of 22 to 25 weeks, we assessed the ability of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development 5-factor model to predict survival rates, compared with a model using GA alone.In the study cohort of 4527 infants, 3647 received intensive care. Survival rates were 53% for the whole cohort and 66% for infants who received intensive care. In multivariate analyses of data for infants who received intensive care, prenatal steroid exposure, female sex, singleton birth, and higher birth weight (per 100-g increment) were each associated with a reduction in the risk of death before discharge similar to that for a 1-week increase in GA. The multivariate model increased the ability to group infants in the highest and lowest risk categories (mortality rates of >80% and <20%, respectively).In a population-based cohort, the addition of prenatal steroid exposure, sex, singleton or multiple birth, and birth weight to GA allowed for improved prediction of rates of survival to discharge for extremely premature infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2010-0097

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281535700047

    View details for PubMedID 20713479

  • Impact of Timing of Birth and Resident Duty-Hour Restrictions on Outcomes for Small Preterm Infants PEDIATRICS Bell, E. F., Hansen, N. I., Morriss, F. H., Stoll, B. J., Ambalavanan, N., Gould, J. B., Laptook, A. R., Walsh, M. C., Carlo, W. A., Shankaran, S., Das, A., Higgins, R. D. 2010; 126 (2): 222-231


    The goal was to examine the impact of birth at night, on the weekend, and during July or August (the first months of the academic year) and the impact of resident duty-hour restrictions on mortality and morbidity rates for very low birth weight infants.Outcomes were analyzed for 11,137 infants with birth weights of 501 to 1250 g who were enrolled in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network registry in 2001-2005. Approximately one-half were born before the introduction of resident duty-hour restrictions in 2003. Follow-up assessments at 18 to 22 months were completed for 4508 infants. Mortality rate, short-term morbidities, and neurodevelopmental outcome were examined with respect to the timing of birth.There was no effect of the timing of birth on mortality rate and no impact on the risks of short-term morbidities except that the risk of retinopathy of prematurity (stage > or =2) was higher after the introduction of duty-hour restrictions and the risk of retinopathy of prematurity requiring operative treatment was lower for infants born during the late night than during the day. There was no impact of the timing of birth on neurodevelopmental outcome except that the risk of hearing impairment or death was slightly lower among infants born in July or August.In this network, the timing of birth had little effect on the risks of death and morbidity for very low birth weight infants, which suggests that staffing patterns were adequate to provide consistent care.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2010-0456

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280565700005

    View details for PubMedID 20643715

  • National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Suchy, F. J., Brannon, P. M., Carpenter, T. O., Fernandez, J. R., Gilsanz, V., Gould, J. B., Hall, K., Hui, S. L., Lupton, J., Mennella, J., Miller, N. J., Osganian, S. K., Sellmeyer, D. E., Wolf, M. A. 2010; 152 (12): 792-?

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278827700005

    View details for PubMedID 20404261

  • The Role of Regional Collaboratives: The California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative Model CLINICS IN PERINATOLOGY Gould, J. B. 2010; 37 (1): 71-?


    Improving the outcome of the infants cared for in one's neonatal intensive care unit is the main objective of improvement projects that are pursued independently or as a member of a national collaborative. Regional quality improvement collaborations represent the intersection of hospital-based and community-based medicine offering the possibility of coordinated improvement efforts conducted at both the hospital and community level. This article discusses the aspirations, workings, and achievements of the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, a regional collaboration formed to improve perinatal care. While it is never easy to align the often differing fundamental positions held by the various member factions and stakeholder groups, the common goal of a universally agreed-upon mission statement can act as a magnet drawing the various components together. Rapid development of a first quality improvement initiative is an effective strategy to engage the participants in a way that allows them to demonstrate, share, and build upon their individual expertise, and provides them a strong sense of professional accomplishment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clp.2010.01.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277244200006

    View details for PubMedID 20363448

  • Factors Influencing Breast Milk versus Formula Feeding at Discharge for Very Low Birth Weight Infants in California JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2009; 155 (5): 657-U94


    To investigate incidence and factors influencing breast milk feeding at discharge for very low birth weight infants (VLBW) in a population-based cohort.We used data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative to calculate incidence of breast milk feeding at hospital discharge for 6790 VLBW infants born in 2005-2006. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine which sociodemographic and medical factors were associated with breast milk feeding. The impact of removing risk adjustment for race was examined.At initial hospital discharge, 61.1% of VLBW infants were fed breast milk or breast milk supplemented with formula. Breast milk feeding was more common with higher birth weight and gestational age. After risk adjustment, multiple birth was associated with higher breast milk feeding. Factors associated with exclusive formula feeding were Hispanic ethnicity, African American race, and no prenatal care. Hospital risk-adjusted rates of breast milk feeding varied widely (range 19.7% to 100%) and differed when race was removed from adjustment.A substantial number of VLBW infants were not fed breast milk at discharge. Specific groups may benefit from targeted interventions to promote breast milk feeding. There may be benefit to reporting risk-adjusted rates both including and excluding race in adjustment when considering quality improvement initiatives.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.04.064

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271570900014

    View details for PubMedID 19628218

  • From Paradox to Disparity: Trends in Neonatal Death in Very Low Birth Weight non-Hispanic Black and White Infants, 1989-2004 JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Bruckner, T. A., Saxton, K. B., Anderson, E., Goldman, S., Gould, J. B. 2009; 155 (4): 482-487


    To examine temporal trends in race-specific neonatal death in California to determine whether the overall decline in mortality attenuated the paradoxical survival advantage of very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight < 1500 g) non-Hispanic black infants relative to VLBW non-Hispanic white infants.The data set comprised the California birth cohort file on non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white VLBW neonatal mortality for 1989-2004. Logistic regression methods were used to control for potentially confounding maternal characteristics.In 1989 and 1990, non-Hispanic black VLBW infants demonstrated a paradox of lower neonatal mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-0.94). This survival advantage disappeared after 1991, however. In 2003 and 2004, the incidence of neonatal mortality increased in non-Hispanic black VLBW infants but decreased in non-Hispanic white VLBW infants, resulting in a racial disparity (aOR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.14-1.56).An initial survival paradox transformed into a disparity. The magnitude of this non-Hispanic black/non-Hispanic white VLBW disparity rose to its highest levels in the last 2 years of the study period. Moreover, the steady mortality increase in VLBW non-Hispanic black VLBW infants since 2001 reversed the secular decline in neonatal mortality in this population. Our findings underscore the need to augment strategies to improve the health trajectory of gestation in non-Hispanic black women.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.04.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270497800008

    View details for PubMedID 19615693

  • Mortality and Morbidity by Month of Birth of Neonates Admitted to an Academic Neonatal Intensive Care Unit PEDIATRICS Soltau, T. D., Carlo, W. A., Gee, J., Gould, J., Ambalavanan, N. 2008; 122 (5): E1048-E1052


    Clinical expertise and skill of pediatric housestaff improve over the academic year, and performance varies despite supervision by faculty neonatologists. It is possible that variation in clinical expertise of housestaff affects important clinical outcomes in infants in ICUs.Our goal was to test the hypothesis that there is a decrease in morbidity and mortality in infants admitted to an NICU over the course of the academic year.A retrospective analysis was conducted using data on infants with birthweight 401 to 1500 g and >or=24 weeks' gestation (n = 3445) and infants with birth weights >1500 g (n = 7840) admitted to a regional NICU from January 1991 to June 2004. All infants were cared for by pediatric and neonatal housestaff supervised by neonatologists. Analysis of mortality and morbidity (intraventricular hemorrhage grades 3-4/periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis >or= Bell stage 2, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia) over time were performed by repeated measures analysis of variance and the chi(2) test.Mortality rate in the 401 to 1500 g cohort, as well as the >1500 g cohort did not decrease over time during the academic year and was similar between the first (July-December) and second (January-June) halves of the academic year. There were no differences noted over the academic year for any of the morbidities.Morbidity and mortality in infants admitted to an academic NICU did not change significantly over the academic year. These observations suggest that the quality of care of critically ill neonates is not decreased early in the academic year.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2008-0412

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260542500061

    View details for PubMedID 18977953

  • School outcomes of late preterm infants: Special needs and challenges for infants born at 32 to 36 weeks gestation JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Chyi, L. J., Lee, H. C., Hintz, S. R., Gould, J. B., Sutcliffe, T. L. 2008; 153 (1): 25-31


    Because limited long-term outcome data exist for infants born at 32 to 36 weeks gestation, we compared school outcomes between 32- to 33-week moderate preterm (MP), 34-36 week late preterm (LP) and full-term (FT) infants.A total of 970 preterm infants and 13 671 FT control subjects were identified from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Test scores, teacher evaluations, and special education enrollment from kindergarten (K) to grade 5 were compared.LP infants had lower reading scores than FT infants in K to first grade (P < .05). Adjusted risk for poor reading and math scores remained elevated in first grade (P < .05). Teacher evaluations of math skills from K to first grade and reading skills from K to fifth grade were worse for LP infants (P < .05). Adjusted odds for below average skills remained higher for math in K and for reading at all grades (P < .05). Special education participation was higher for LP infants at early grades (odds ratio, 1.4-2.1). MP infants had lower test and teacher evaluation scores than FT infants and twice the risk for special education at all grade levels.Persistent teacher concerns through grade 5 and greater special education needs among MP and LP infants suggest a need to start follow-up, anticipatory guidance, and interventions for infants born at 32 to 36 weeks gestation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.01.027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257154800010

    View details for PubMedID 18571530

  • Population trends in cesarean delivery for breech presentation in the United States, 1997-2003 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lee, H. C., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Gould, J. B. 2008; 199 (1)


    The objective of the study was to determine whether cesarean delivery for breech has increased in the United States.We calculated cesarean rates for term singletons in breech/malpresentation from 1997 to 2003 using National Center for Health Statistics data. We compared rates by sociodemographic groups and state. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to see whether factors associated with cesarean delivery differed over time.Breech cesarean rates increased overall from 83.8% to 85.1%. There was a significant increase in rates for most sociodemographic groups. There was little to no increase for mothers younger than 30 years old. There was wide variability in rates by state, 61.6-94.2% in 1997. Higher breech incidence correlated with lower cesarean rates, suggesting potential state bias in reporting breech.In the United States, breech infants are predominantly born by cesarean. There was a small increase in this trend from 1998 to 2002. There is wide variability by state, which is not explained by sociodemographic patterns and may be due to reporting differences.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.11.059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257205200021

    View details for PubMedID 18295181

  • Delivery mode by race for breech presentation in the US JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Lee, H. C., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Gould, J. B. 2007; 27 (3): 147-153


    To determine if there are differential cesarean delivery rates by race and other socio-demographic factors for women with breech infants.We calculated cesarean delivery rates for 186 727 White, African American, Hispanic and Asian women delivering breech singletons with gestational age 26 to 41 weeks born in 1999 and 2000 using data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine differences in mode of delivery by race, adjusting for socio-demographic and medical factors.Cesarean rates for breech were >80% in most gestational age groups. In 14 of 18 groups, Whites had higher cesarean delivery rates than African Americans. However, this finding did not persist after risk adjustment. Hispanics were more likely to deliver by cesarean delivery than African Americans and Whites.Breech singleton infants are predominantly born by cesarean delivery. Although African-American women with breech presentation have lower cesarean delivery rates than Whites, this difference is not present after adjusting for socio-demographic and medical factors. Hispanics were more likely to be delivered by cesarean delivery and this difference was amplified after risk adjustment. Asians had slightly lower cesarean rates after risk adjustment, but this varied widely according to Asian subgroup.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244420900003

    View details for PubMedID 17314983

  • Survival rates and mode of delivery for vertex preterm neonates according to small- or appropriate-for-gestational-age status PEDIATRICS Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2006; 118 (6): E1836-E1844


    The goal was to characterize the relationship between cesarean section delivery and death for preterm vertex neonates according to intrauterine growth.Maternal and infant data from the National Center for Health Statistics for 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. Neonates with gestational ages of 26 to 36 weeks were characterized as small for gestational age (<10th percentile) or appropriate for gestational age (10th to 90th percentile). Mortality rates at 28 days and relative risks were calculated for each gestational age group according to mode of delivery.Cesarean section rates were higher for small-for-gestational-age neonates compared with appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates, most prominently from 26 weeks to 32 weeks of gestation, at which small-for-gestational-age neonates had cesarean section rates of 50% to 67%, whereas appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates had rates of 22% to 38%. Small-for-gestational-age neonates at gestational ages of <31 weeks had increased survival rates associated with cesarean section, whereas small-for-gestational-age neonates at >33 weeks and appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates overall had decreased survival rates associated with cesarean section. After adjustment for sociodemographic and medical factors, the survival advantage for small-for-gestational-age neonates at gestational ages of 26 to 30 weeks persisted.Cesarean section delivery was associated with survival for preterm small-for-gestational-age neonates but not preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates. We speculate that vaginal delivery may be particularly stressful for small-for-gestational-age neonates. We found no evidence that prematurity alone is a valid indication for cesarean section for preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2006-1327

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242478900081

    View details for PubMedID 17142505

  • Mexican women in California: differentials in maternal morbidity between foreign and US-born populations PAEDIATRIC AND PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY Guendelman, S., Thornton, D., Gould, J., Hosang, N. 2006; 20 (6): 471-481


    In the US, the majority of deaths and serious complications of pregnancy occur during childbirth and are largely preventable. We conducted a population-based study to assess disparities in maternal health between Mexican-born and Mexican-American women residing in California and to evaluate the extent to which immigrants have better outcomes. Mothers in these two populations deliver 40% of infants in the state. We compared maternal mortality ratios and maternal morbidities during labour and delivery in the two populations using linked 1996-98 hospital discharge and birth certificate data files. For maternal morbidities, we calculated frequencies and observed and adjusted odds (OR) ratios using pre-existing maternal health, sociodemographic characteristics and quality of health care as covariates. Approximately 19% of Mexican-born women suffered a maternal disorder compared with 21% of Mexican-American women (Observed OR = 0.89, [95% CI 0.88, 0.90]). Despite their lower education and relative poverty, Mexican-born women still experienced a lower odds of any maternal morbidity than Mexican-American women, after adjusting for covariates (OR = 0.92, [95% CI 0.90, 0.93]). These findings suggest a paradox of more favourable outcomes among Mexican immigrants similar to that found with birth outcomes. Nevertheless, the positive aggregate outcome of Mexican-born women did not extend to maternal mortality, nor to certain conditions associated with suboptimal intrapartum obstetric care.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241246000003

    View details for PubMedID 17052282

  • Operational research on perinatal epidemiology, care and outcomes JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Gould, J. B. 2006; 26: S34-S37


    Traditionally, neonatal-perinatal medicine has been concerned with two areas of research: basic and translational. A third area, perinatal epidemiology/health outcomes research addresses those factors that impede and promote the clinical actualization of the advances developed by basic and translational research. Unfortunately, research and training in perinatal epidemiology and outcomes analysis have not kept pace with our need to understand the interplay between risk, intervention, structure and outcome. This knowledge is essential to the development of the clinical/organizational and training strategies that will enable perinatal medicine to fully realize the promise of basic and translational research.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241844600009

    View details for PubMedID 16801967

  • The Asian birth outcome gap PAEDIATRIC AND PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY Qin, C., Gould, J. B. 2006; 20 (4): 279-289


    Asians are often considered a single group in epidemiological research. This study examines the extent of differences in maternal risks and birth outcomes for six Asian subgroups. Using linked birth/infant death certificate data from the State of California for the years 1992-97, we assessed maternal socio-economic risks and their effect on birthweight, preterm delivery (PTD), neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality for Filipino (87,120), Chinese (67,228), Vietnamese (45,237), Korean (23,431), Cambodian/Laotian (21,239) and Japanese (18,276) live singleton births. The analysis also included information about non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks in order to give a sense of the magnitude of risks among Asians. Logistic regression models explored the effect of maternal risk factors and PTD on Asian subgroup differences in neonatal and post-neonatal mortality, using Japanese as the reference group. Across Asian subgroups, the differences ranged from 2.5- to 135-fold for maternal risks, and 2.2-fold for infant mortality rate. PTD was an important contributor to neonatal mortality differences. Maternal risk factors contributed to the disparities in post-neonatal mortality. Significant differences in perinatal health across Asian subgroups deserve ethnicity-specific interventions addressing PTD, teen pregnancy, maternal education, parity and access to prenatal care.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239531200002

    View details for PubMedID 16879500

  • Sociocultural factors that affect pregnancy outcomes in two dissimilar immigrant groups in the United States JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Madan, A., Palaniappan, L., Urizar, G., Wang, Y., Fortmann, S. P., Gould, J. B. 2006; 148 (3): 341-346


    To compare perinatal risks and outcomes in foreign- and U.S.-born Asian-Indian and Mexican women.We evaluated 6.4 million U.S. vital records for births during 1995-2000 to white, foreign- and U.S.-born Asian-Indian and Mexican women. Risks and outcomes were compared by use of chi2 and logistic regression.With the exception of increased teen pregnancy and tobacco use, the favorable sociodemographic profile and increased rate of adverse outcomes seen in foreign-born Asian Indians persisted in their U.S.-born counterparts. In contrast, foreign-born Mexicans had an adverse sociodemographic profile but a low incidence of low birth weight (LBW), whereas U.S.-born Mexicans had an improved sociodemographic profile and increased LBW, prematurity and neonatal death.Perinatal outcomes deteriorate in U.S.-born Mexican women. In contrast, the paradoxically increased incidence of LBW persists in U.S.-born Asian-Indian women. Further research is needed to identify the social and biologic determinants of perinatal outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.peds.2005.11.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236718700015

    View details for PubMedID 16615964

  • Survival advantage associated with cesarean delivery in very low birth weight vertex neonates. Obstetrics and gynecology Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2006; 107 (1): 97-105


    To identify the indications for and any survival advantage associated with very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates delivered by cesarean.Maternal and infant data from the National Center for Health Statistics linked birth/death data set for 1999 to 2000 were analyzed. Maternal conditions associated with cesarean delivery were compared among birth weight groups for vertex neonates. Birth weight-specific 28-day mortality rates and relative risks were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to adjust for other factors that may be associated with survival.Cesarean delivery occurred frequently, more than 40% in most VLBW birth weight groups. Conditions associated with cesarean delivery in VLBW vertex neonates differed from those seen in non-VLBW vertex neonates. A survival advantage was associated with cesarean delivery in the birth weight analysis up to 1,300 g (P < .05). This decreased mortality for VLBW neonates delivered by cesarean persisted after adjusting for other factors associated with mortality.Very low birth weight vertex neonates are often born by cesarean delivery and have different maternal risk profiles from non-VLBW vertex neonates born by this route. Neonatal mortality was decreased in VLBW neonates delivered by cesarean. Further study is warranted to determine whether this may be a causal relationship or a marker of quality of care.II-2.

    View details for PubMedID 16394046

  • Time of birth and the risk of neonatal death OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Gould, J. B., Qin, C., Chavez, G. 2005; 106 (2): 352-358


    To assess whether mortality is increased in the United States in infants born at night, we compared case-mix adjusted neonatal mortality for low- and high-risk infants born during the daytime (7 am to 6 pm), early night (7 pm to 12 am), and late night (1 am to 6 am).California linked birth-death certificate data on 3,363,157 infants, weighing more than 500 g and born without lethal congenital anomalies in 1992-1999, were analyzed. Logistic regression, adjusting for birth weight, gender, prenatal care initiation, maternal hypertension, eclampsia, diabetes, and placental abruption/previa, was used to estimate the relationship between neonatal mortality and time of birth.The overall neonatal mortality was 2.08 deaths per 1,000 live births. Neonatal mortality was 1.88 for daytime births, increasing to 2.37 for early night and 2.31 for late night births. After adjusting for case mix, early night births had a 12% increase and late night births a 16% increase in the odds of neonatal death, an excess that accounts for 9.6% of all neonatal deaths. Mortality was increased for night births that were less than 1,500 g or more than 1,500 g, singletons or multiples, and those delivered vaginally or by cesarean. The increased risk was identified in hospitals that provide intermediate, community, and regional neonatal intensive care, but not in hospitals that provide primary care.Identifying the causal factors and reducing the increased burden of mortality for infants born at night should be a major priority for perinatal medicine.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230717800022

    View details for PubMedID 16055587

  • Cesarean delivery rates and neonatal morbidity in a low-risk population OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Gould, J. B., Danielsen, B., Korst, L. M., Phibbs, R., Chance, K., Main, E., Wirtschafter, D. D., Stevenson, D. K. 2004; 104 (1): 11-19


    To estimate the relationship between case-mix adjusted cesarean delivery rates and neonatal morbidity and mortality in infants born to low-risk mothers.This retrospective cohort study used vital and administrative data for 748,604 California singletons born without congenital abnormalities in 1998-2000. A total of 282 institutions was classified as average-, low-, or high-cesarean delivery hospitals based on their cesarean delivery rate for mothers without a previous cesarean delivery, in labor at term, with no evidence of maternal, fetal, or placental complications. Neonatal mortality, diagnoses, and therapeutic interventions determined by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes, and neonatal length of stay were compared across these hospital groupings.Compared with average-cesarean delivery-rate hospitals, infants born to low-risk mothers at low-cesarean delivery hospitals had increased fetal hemorrhage, birth asphyxia, meconium aspiration syndrome, feeding problems, and electrolyte abnormalities (P <.02). Infused medication, pressors, transfusion for shock, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay were also increased (P <.001). This suggests that some infants born in low-cesarean delivery hospitals might have benefited from cesarean delivery. Infants delivered at high-cesarean delivery hospitals demonstrated increased fetal hemorrhage, asphyxia, birth trauma, electrolyte abnormalities, and use of mechanical ventilation (P <.001), suggesting that high cesarean delivery rates themselves are not protective.Neonatal morbidity is increased in infants born to low-risk women who deliver at both low- and high-cesarean delivery-rate hospitals. The quality of perinatal care should be assessed in these outlier hospitals.III

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.AOG.0000127035.64602.97

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225414600004

    View details for PubMedID 15228995

  • Neonatal mortality in weekend vs weekday births JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Gould, J. B., Qin, C., Marks, A. R., Chavez, G. 2003; 289 (22): 2958-2962


    Increases in neonatal mortality for infants born on the weekend were last noted several decades ago. Although the current health care environment has raised concern about the adequacy of weekend care, there have been no contemporary evaluations of daily patterns of births, obstetric intervention, and case mix-adjusted neonatal mortality.To compare the neonatal mortality of infants born on weekdays and weekends.Case series of 1 615 041 live births (weight >or=500 g) in California between 1995-1997 to determine patterns of births, cesarean deliveries, and neonatal deaths. Analyses were stratified by birth weight and delivery method. To assess the role of weekend differences in case mix, observed and birth weight-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for increased weekend mortality were estimated using logistic regression.Birth weight-adjusted neonatal mortality.There was a 17.5% decrease in births on weekends, accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of cesarean deliveries from 22% on weekdays to 16% on weekends. Weekend decreases in births were least pronounced in smaller infants, resulting in a weekend concentration of high-mortality, very low-birth-weight (<1500 g) births. Observed neonatal mortality increased from 2.80 per 1000 weekday births to 3.12 per 1000 weekend births (OR, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.19; P =.001) for all births, and from 4.94 to 6.85 (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.25-1.55; P<.001) for cesarean deliveries. After adjusting for birth weight, the increased odds of death for infants born on the weekend were no longer significant.The provision of optimal care regardless of the day of week is an important goal for perinatal medicine. Comparing the neonatal mortality of infants born on weekdays and weekends provides a straightforward assessment of this goal. After controlling for birth weight, we found no evidence that the quality of perinatal care in California was compromised during the weekend.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183403400018

    View details for PubMedID 12799403

  • Perinatal outcomes in two dissimilar immigrant populations in the United States: A dual epidemiologic paradox PEDIATRICS Gould, J. B., Madan, A., Qin, C., Chavez, G. 2003; 111 (6): E676-E682


    Previous studies have addressed perinatal outcomes in Hispanic, black, and white non-Hispanic women and demonstrated that although foreign-born Mexican American women have many demographic and socioeconomic risk factors, their rates of low birth weight (LBW) infants and infant mortality are similar to those of white women. This phenomenon has been termed an epidemiologic paradox. There have been no population-based studies on women of Asian Indian origin, a relatively new, highly educated, and affluent immigrant group that has been reported to have a high rate of LBW infants. The objective of this study was to define the sociodemographic risk profile and perinatal outcomes in women of Asian Indian birth and to compare these outcomes to foreign-born Mexican American and US-born black and white women.The vital records for self-reported foreign-born Asian Indian (0.8%) and Mexican women (26.7%) and US-born black (31.2%) and white women (31.2%) were extracted from California's 1 622 324 births, 1995-1997. Sociodemographic risk profiles; the percentage of LBW, very low birth weight (VLBW), prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (less than third percentile); and percentage of fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal death rates were compared. Logistic models were used to estimate the importance of selected sociodemographic and medical factors to the prediction of LBW infants in each racial/ethnic group.When compared with whites, US-born blacks and foreign-born Mexican mothers were at increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes on the basis of higher levels of inadequate prenatal care, teen births, Medi-Cal paid delivery, and lower levels of maternal and paternal education. Foreign-born Asian Indian mothers had good prenatal care, were rarely teenagers, had dramatically higher levels of both maternal and paternal education, and had the lowest percentage of deliveries paid for by Medi-Cal. Black infants had the highest rates of prematurity; intrauterine growth retardation; LBW; and fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality. Paradoxically, despite their high-risk profile, Mexicans did not have elevated levels of LBW or neonatal mortality. Conversely, Asian Indian infants, although seemingly of low sociodemographic risk, had high levels of LBW, growth retardation, and fetal mortality. Logistic regression analysis of independent risk factors for giving birth to an LBW infant showed higher maternal education, early access to prenatal care, and having private insurance to be protective in white non-Hispanic and black but not in Asian Indian and Mexican-born women.Despite their high socioeconomic status and early entry into care, foreign-born Asian Indian women have a paradoxically higher incidence of LBW infants and fetal deaths when compared with US-born whites. Factors that protect from giving birth to an LBW infant in white women were not protective among Asian Indian women. Current knowledge regarding factors that confer a perinatal advantage or disadvantage is unable to explain this new epidemiologic paradox. These findings highlight the need for additional research into both epidemiologic and biological risk factors that determine perinatal outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183696000007

    View details for PubMedID 12777585

  • Risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: Estimation of odds ratios by critical literature review PEDIATRICS Benitz, W. E., Gould, J. B., Druzin, M. L. 1999; 103 (6)


    To identify and to establish the prevalence of ORs factors associated with increased risk for early-onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates. streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates.Literature review and reanalysis of published data.Risk factors for EOGBS infection include group B streptococcal (GBS)-positive vaginal culture at delivery (OR: 204), GBS-positive rectovaginal culture at 28 (OR: 9.64) or 36 weeks gestation (OR: 26. 7), vaginal Strep B OIA test positive at delivery (OR: 15.4), birth weight 18 hours (OR: 7.28), intrapartum fever >37.5 degrees C (OR: 4.05), intrapartum fever, PROM, or prematurity (OR: 9.74), intrapartum fever or PROM at term (OR: 11.5), chorioamnionitis (OR: 6.43). Chorioamnionitis is reported in most (88%) cases in which neonatal infection occurred despite intrapartum maternal antibiotic therapy. ORs could not be estimated for maternal GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, with preterm premature rupture of membranes, or with a sibling or twin with invasive GBS disease, but these findings seem to be associated with a very high risk. Multiple gestation is not an independent risk factor for GBS infection.h Mothers with GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, with another child with GBS disease, or with chorioamnionitis should receive empirical intrapartum antibiotic treatment. Their infants should have complete diagnostic evaluations and receive empirical treatment until infection is excluded by observation and negative cultures because of their particularly high risk for EOGBS infection. Either screening with cultures at 28 weeks gestation or identification of clinical risk factors, ie, PROM, intrapartum fever, or prematurity, may identify parturients whose infants include 65% of those with EOGBS infection. Intrapartum screening using the Strep B OIA rapid test identifies more at-risk infants (75%) than any other method. These risk identifiers may permit judicious selection of patients for prophylactic interventions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080613400006

    View details for PubMedID 10353974

  • Preventing early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: Strategy development using decision analysis PEDIATRICS Benitz, W. E., Gould, J. B., Druzin, M. L. 1999; 103 (6)


    To evaluate recommended strategies for prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal infections (EOGBS) with reference to strategies optimized using decision analysis.The EOGBS attack rate, prevalence and odds ratios for risk factors, and expected effects of prophylaxis were estimated from published data. Population subgroups were defined by gestational age, presence or absence of intrapartum fever or prolonged rupture of membranes, and presence or absence of maternal group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization. The EOGBS prevalence in each subgroup was estimated using decision analysis. The number of EOGBS cases prevented by an intervention was estimated as the product of the expected reduction in attack rate and the number of expected cases in each group selected for treatment. For each strategy, the number of residual EOGBS cases, cost, and numbers of treated patients were calculated based on the composition of the prophylaxis group. Integrated obstetrical-neonatal strategies for EOGBS prevention were developed by targeting the subgroups expected to benefit most from intervention.Reductions in EOGBS rates predicted by this decision analysis were smaller than those previously estimated for the strategies proposed by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1992 (32.9% vs 90.7%), the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in 1992 (53.8% vs 88.8%), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1996 (75.1% vs 86.0%). Strategies based on screening for GBS colonization with rectovaginal cultures at 36 weeks or on use of a rapid test to screen for GBS colonization on presentation for delivery, combining intrapartum prophylaxis for selected mothers and postpartum prophylaxis for some of their infants, would require treatment of fewer patients and prevent more cases (78.4% or 80.1%, respectively) at lower cost.No strategy can prevent all EOGBS cases, but the attack rate can be reduced at a cost <$12 000 per prevented case. Supplementing intrapartum prophylaxis with postpartum ampicillin in a few infants is more effective and less costly than providing intrapartum prophylaxis for more mothers. Better intrapartum screening tests offer the greatest promise for increasing efficacy. Integrated obstetrical and neonatal regimens appropriate to the population served should be adopted by each obstetrical service. Surveillance of costs, complications, and benefits will be essential to guide continued iterative improvement of these strategies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080613400005

    View details for PubMedID 10353973

  • Antimicrobial prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: Estimates of risk reduction based on a critical literature review PEDIATRICS Benitz, W. E., Gould, J. B., Druzin, M. L. 1999; 103 (6)


    To identify interventions that reduce the attack rate for early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis in neonates.Literature review and reanalysis of published data.The rate of early-onset GBS sepsis in high-risk neonates can be reduced by administration of antibiotics. Treatment during pregnancy (antepartum prophylaxis) fails to reduce maternal GBS colonization at delivery. With the administration of intravenous ampicillin, the risk of early-onset infection in infants born to women with preterm premature rupture of membranes is reduced by 56% and the risk of GBS infection is reduced by 36%; addition of gentamicin may increase the efficacy of ampicillin. Treatment of women with chorioamnionitis with ampicillin and gentamicin during labor reduces the likelihood of neonatal sepsis by 82% and reduces the likelihood of GBS infection by 86%. Universal administration of penicillin to neonates shortly after birth (postpartum prophylaxis) reduces the early-onset GBS attack rate by 68% but is associated with a 40% increase in overall mortality and therefore is contraindicated. Intrapartum prophylaxis, alone or combined with postnatal prophylaxis for the infants, reduces the early-onset GBS attack rate by 80% or 95%, respectively.Women with chorioamnionitis or premature rupture of membranes and their infants should be treated with intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin. Intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis may be appropriate for other women whose infants are at increased but less extreme risk, and supplemental postpartum prophylaxis may be indicated for some of their infants. Selection of appropriate candidates and prophylaxis strategies requires careful consideration of costs and benefits for each patient. group B streptococcus, neonatal sepsis, early-onset sepsis, prevention, prophylaxis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080613400007

    View details for PubMedID 10353975

Conference Proceedings

  • The Effect of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes on Neonatal Mortality Rates Blumenfeld, Y. J., Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B., Langen, E. S., Jafari, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2010: 1381-1386


    To estimate the effect of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) on neonatal mortality.A cross-sectional study using a state perinatal database (California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative) was performed. Prenatal data, including ruptured membranes, corticosteroid administration, maternal age, maternal race, maternal hypertension, mode of delivery, and prenatal care, were recorded. Mortality rates were compared for neonates born between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation without preterm PROM to those with recent (less than 18 hours before delivery) and prolonged (more than 18 hours before delivery) preterm PROM. Neonatal sepsis rates were also examined.Neonates born between 24 0/7 and 34 0/7 weeks of gestation from 127 California neonatal intensive care units between 2005 and 2007 were included (N=17,501). When analyzed by 2-week gestational age groups, there were no differences in mortality rates between those born with and without membrane rupture before delivery. The presence of prolonged preterm PROM was associated with decreased mortality at 24 to 26 weeks of gestation (18% compared with 31% for recent preterm PROM; odds ratio [OR] 1.79; confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.56) but increased mortality at 28 to 30 weeks of gestation (4% compared with 3% for recent preterm PROM; OR 0.44; CI 0.22, 0.88) when adjusted for possible confounding factors. Sepsis rates did not differ between those with recent or prolonged preterm PROM at any gestational age.The presence of membrane rupture before delivery was not associated with increased neonatal mortality in any gestational age group. The effects of a prolonged latency period were not consistent across gestational ages.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181fe3d28

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284491000021

    View details for PubMedID 21099606

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