MD, University of Washington, Medicine (1984)
BS, University of California, Irvine, Biology (1977)
PhD, University of Washington, Genetics of Human Disease (1984)
Color variation is one of the most readily apparent differences among closely related animals, and has been studied extensively as a model for Mendelian genetics over the last 100 years. Our laboratory is interested in the mechanisms that give rise to eye, hair, and skin coloration, both as a tool for studying gene action and interaction, and because many signaling pathways used by the pigmentary system play important roles in human development and disease.
All mammals use the same genetic toolbox, and several mouse coat color mutations have human counterparts such as oculocutaneous albinism or Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Applying the genetics of mouse hair color as a model, however, is relevant not only to rare inborn errors but also to common diseases including diabetes and obesity, neurodegeneration, and skin cancer. Production of normal hair and skin color depends on a series of processes--cell migration, stem cell renewal, paracrine regulation of cell physiology--used in many different contexts throughout the body; pigmentation phenotypes are especially well-suited for studying these processes because mutations are efficiently recognized, subtle effects on gene expression are easily detected, and the cell types and tissues involved are amenable to experimental manipulation.
Our original interest in mouse coat color genetics stems from mutations that cause a back-and-forth switch between pigment granules characteristic of red hair, to those characteristic of black, brown, or blond hair. Studies of these pigment type-switching mutations have identified one set of pathways important for body weight regulation, and another set of pathways implicated in neurodegeneration. Several current projects in the laboratory are directed at specific aspects of these pathways.
Next-generation sequencing technologies offer new approaches for global measurements of gene expression but are mostly limited to organisms for which a high-quality assembled reference genome sequence is available. We present a method for gene expression profiling called EDGE, or EcoP15I-tagged Digital Gene Expression, based on ultra-high-throughput sequencing of 27-bp cDNA fragments that uniquely tag the corresponding gene, thereby allowing direct quantification of transcript abundance. We show that EDGE is capable of assaying for expression in >99% of genes in the genome and achieves saturation after 6-8 million reads. EDGE exhibits very little technical noise, reveals a large (10(6)) dynamic range of gene expression, and is particularly suited for quantification of transcript abundance in non-model organisms where a high-quality annotated genome is not available. In a direct comparison with RNA-seq, both methods provide similar assessments of relative transcript abundance, but EDGE does better at detecting gene expression differences for poorly expressed genes and does not exhibit transcript length bias. Applying EDGE to laboratory mice, we show that a loss-of-function mutation in the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), recognized as a Mendelian determinant of yellow hair color in many different mammals, also causes reduced expression of genes involved in the interferon response. To illustrate the application of EDGE to a non-model organism, we examine skin biopsy samples from a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and identify genes likely to control differences in the color of spotted versus non-spotted regions.
View details for DOI 10.1101/gr.122135.111
View details for Web of Science ID 000296696600014
View details for PubMedID 21844123
Mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins cause the Minute phenotype in Drosophila and mice, and Diamond-Blackfan syndrome in humans. Here we report two mouse dark skin (Dsk) loci caused by mutations in Rps19 (ribosomal protein S19) and Rps20 (ribosomal protein S20). We identify a common pathophysiologic program in which p53 stabilization stimulates Kit ligand expression, and, consequently, epidermal melanocytosis via a paracrine mechanism. Accumulation of p53 also causes reduced body size and erythrocyte count. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for the diverse collection of phenotypes that accompany reduced dosage of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, and have implications for understanding normal human variation and human disease.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ng.188
View details for Web of Science ID 000258026900012
View details for PubMedID 18641651
Genetic analysis of mammalian color variation has provided fundamental insight into human biology and disease. In most vertebrates, two key genes, Agouti and Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), encode a ligand-receptor system that controls pigment type-switching, but in domestic dogs, a third gene is implicated, the K locus, whose genetic characteristics predict a previously unrecognized component of the melanocortin pathway. We identify the K locus as beta-defensin 103 (CBD103) and show that its protein product binds with high affinity to the Mc1r and has a simple and strong effect on pigment type-switching in domestic dogs and transgenic mice. These results expand the functional role of beta-defensins, a protein family previously implicated in innate immunity, and identify an additional class of ligands for signaling through melanocortin receptors.
View details for PubMedID 17947548
Mutations of pigment type switching have provided basic insight into melanocortin physiology and evolutionary adaptation. In all vertebrates that have been studied to date, two key genes, Agouti and Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), encode a ligand-receptor system that controls the switch between synthesis of red-yellow pheomelanin vs. black-brown eumelanin. However, in domestic dogs, historical studies based on pedigree and segregation analysis have suggested that the pigment type-switching system is more complicated and fundamentally different from other mammals. Using a genomewide linkage scan on a Labrador x greyhound cross segregating for black, yellow, and brindle coat colors, we demonstrate that pigment type switching is controlled by an additional gene, the K locus. Our results reveal three alleles with a dominance order of black (K(B)) > brindle (k(br)) > yellow (k(y)), whose genetic map position on dog chromosome 16 is distinct from the predicted location of other pigmentation genes. Interaction studies reveal that Mc1r is epistatic to variation at Agouti or K and that the epistatic relationship between Agouti and K depends on the alleles being tested. These findings suggest a molecular model for a new component of the melanocortin signaling pathway and reveal how coat-color patterns and pigmentary diversity have been shaped by recent selection.
View details for DOI 10.1534/genetics.107.074237
View details for Web of Science ID 000248416300025
View details for PubMedID 17483404
View details for PubMedID 17522405
Normal aging in humans and rodents is accompanied by a progressive increase in adiposity. To investigate the role of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in this process, we used a Cre-lox strategy to create mice with specific and progressive degeneration of hypothalamic neurons that express agouti-related protein (Agrp) or proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), neuropeptides that promote positive or negative energy balance, respectively, through their opposing effects on melanocortin receptor signaling. In previous studies, Pomc mutant mice became obese, but Agrp mutant mice were surprisingly normal, suggesting potential compensation by neuronal circuits or genetic redundancy. Here we find that Pomc-ablation mice develop obesity similar to that described for Pomc knockout mice, but also exhibit defects in compensatory hyperphagia similar to what occurs during normal aging. Agrp-ablation female mice exhibit reduced adiposity with normal compensatory hyperphagia, while animals ablated for both Pomc and Agrp neurons exhibit an additive interaction phenotype. These findings provide new insight into the roles of hypothalamic neurons in energy balance regulation, and provide a model for understanding defects in human energy balance associated with neurodegeneration and aging.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030415
View details for Web of Science ID 000233903800012
View details for PubMedID 16296893
Central control of energy balance depends on the ability of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or agouti-related protein (Agrp) hypothalamic neurons to sense and respond to changes in peripheral energy stores. Leptin and insulin have been implicated as circulating indicators of adiposity, but it is not clear how changes in their levels are perceived or integrated by individual neuronal subtypes. We developed mice in which a fluorescent reporter for PI3K activity is targeted to either Agrp or POMC neurons and used 2-photon microscopy to measure dynamic regulation of PI3K by insulin and leptin in brain slices. We show that leptin and insulin act in parallel to stimulate PI3K in POMC neurons but in opposite ways on Agrp neurons. These results suggest a new view of hypothalamic circuitry, in which the effects of leptin and insulin are integrated by anorexigenic but not by orexigenic neurons.
View details for Web of Science ID 000228145700026
View details for PubMedID 15761497
A new class of dominant dark skin (Dsk) mutations discovered in a screen of approximately 30,000 mice is caused by increased dermal melanin. We identified three of four such mutations as hypermorphic alleles of Gnaq and Gna11, which encode widely expressed Galphaq subunits, act in an additive and quantitative manner, and require Ednrb. Interactions between Gq and Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signaling can mediate coordinate or independent control of skin and hair color. Our results provide a mechanism that can explain several aspects of human pigmentary variation and show how polymorphism of essential proteins and signaling pathways can affect a single physiologic system.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ng1412
View details for Web of Science ID 000223658100022
View details for PubMedID 15322542
Many members of the animal kingdom display coat or skin color differences along their dorsoventral axis. To determine the mechanisms that control regional differences in pigmentation, we have studied how a classical mouse mutation, droopy ear (de(H)), affects dorsoventral skin characteristics, especially those under control of the Agouti gene. Mice carrying the Agouti allele black-and-tan (a(t)) normally have a sharp boundary between dorsal black hair and yellow ventral hair; the de(H) mutation raises the pigmentation boundary, producing an apparent dorsal-to-ventral transformation. We identify a 216 kb deletion in de(H) that removes all but the first exon of the Tbx15 gene, whose embryonic expression in developing mesenchyme correlates with pigmentary and skeletal malformations observed in de(H)/de(H) animals. Construction of a targeted allele of Tbx15 confirmed that the de(H) phenotype was caused by Tbx15 loss of function. Early embryonic expression of Tbx15 in dorsal mesenchyme is complementary to Agouti expression in ventral mesenchyme; in the absence of Tbx15, expression of Agouti in both embryos and postnatal animals is displaced dorsally. Transplantation experiments demonstrate that positional identity of the skin with regard to dorsoventral pigmentation differences is acquired by E12.5, which is shortly after early embryonic expression of Tbx15. Fate-mapping studies show that the dorsoventral pigmentation boundary is not in register with a previously identified dermal cell lineage boundary, but rather with the limb dorsoventral boundary. Embryonic expression of Tbx15 in dorsolateral mesenchyme provides an instructional cue required to establish the future positional identity of dorsal dermis. These findings represent a novel role for T-box gene action in embryonic development, identify a previously unappreciated aspect of dorsoventral patterning that is widely represented in furred mammals, and provide insight into the mechanisms that underlie region-specific differences in body morphology.
View details for PubMedID 14737183
View details for PubMedID 14551921
mahoganoid is a mouse coat-color mutation whose pigmentary phenotype and genetic interactions resemble those of Attractin (Atrn). Atrn mutations also cause spongiform neurodegeneration. Here, we show that a null mutation for mahoganoid causes a similar age-dependent neuropathology that includes many features of prion diseases but without accumulation of protease-resistant prion protein. The gene mutated in mahoganoid encodes a RING-containing protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. Similarities in phenotype, expression, and genetic interactions suggest that mahoganoid and Atrn genes are part of a conserved pathway for regulated protein turnover whose function is essential for neuronal viability.
View details for Web of Science ID 000180687700048
View details for PubMedID 12560552
Chemical mutagenesis in the mouse is a powerful approach for phenotype-driven genetics, but questions remain about the efficiency with which new mutations ascertained by their phenotype can be localized and identified, and that knowledge applied to a specific biological problem. During a global screen for dominant phenotypes in about 30,000 animals, a novel class of pigmentation mutants were identified by dark skin (Dsk). We determined the genetic map location, homozygous phenotype, and histology of 10 new Dsk and 2 new dark coat (Dcc) mutations, and identified mutations in Agouti (Met1Leu, Dcc4), Sox18 (Leu220ter, Dcc1), Keratin 2e (Thr500Pro, Dsk2), and Egfr (Leu863Gln, Dsk5). Cutaneous effects of most Dsk mutations are limited to melanocytes, except for the Keratin 2e and Egfr mutations, in which hyperkeratosis and epidermal thickening precede epidermal melanocytosis by 3-6 wk. The Dsk2 mutation is likely to impair intermediate filament assembly, leading to cytolysis of suprabasal keratinocytes and secondary hyperkeratosis and melanocytosis. The Dsk5 mutation causes increased tyrosine kinase activity and a decrease in steady-state receptor levels in vivo. The Dsk mutations represent genes or map locations not implicated previously in pigmentation, and delineate a developmental pathway in which mutations can be classified on the basis of body region, microscopic site, and timing of pigment accumulation.
View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.1023703
View details for Web of Science ID 000180496600006
View details for PubMedID 12533510
Agouti protein, a paracrine signaling molecule normally limited to skin, is ectopically expressed in lethal yellow (A(y)) mice, and causes obesity by mimicking agouti-related protein (Agrp), found primarily in the hypothalamus. Mouse attractin (Atrn) is a widely expressed transmembrane protein whose loss of function in mahogany (Atrn(mg-3J)/ Atrn(mg-3J)) mutant mice blocks the pleiotropic effects of A(y). Here we demonstrate in transgenic, biochemical and genetic-interaction experiments that attractin is a low-affinity receptor for agouti protein, but not Agrp, in vitro and in vivo. Additional histopathologic abnormalities in Atrn(mg-3J)/Atrn(mg-3J) mice and cross-species genomic comparisons indicate that Atrn has multiple functions distinct from both a physiologic and an evolutionary perspective.
View details for Web of Science ID 000166187900013
View details for PubMedID 11137996
The role of genetics in obesity is twofold. Studying rare mutations in humans and model organisms provides fundamental insight into a complex physiological process, and complements population-based studies that seek to reveal primary causes. Remarkable progress has been made on both fronts, and the pace of advance is likely to accelerate as functional genomics and the human genome project expand and mature. Approaches based on mendelian and quantitative genetics may well converge, and lead ultimately to more rational and selective therapies.
View details for Web of Science ID 000086400100064
View details for PubMedID 10766251
The melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) is encoded by the Extension locus in many different mammals, where a loss-of-function causes exclusive production of red/yellow pheomelanin, and a constitutively activating mutation causes exclusive production of black/brown eumelanin. In the domestic dog, breeds with a wild-type E allele, e. g., the Doberman, can produce either pigment type, whereas breeds with the e allele, e.g., the Golden Retriever, produce exclusively yellow pigment. However, a black coat color in the Newfoundland and similar breeds is thought to be caused by an unusual allele of Agouti, which encodes the physiologic ligand for the Mc1r. Here we report that the predicted dog Mc1r is 317 residues in length and 96% identical to the fox Mc1r. Comparison of the Doberman, Newfoundland, Black Labrador, Yellow Labrador, Flat-coated Retriever, Irish Setter, and Golden Retriever revealed six sequence variants, of which two, S90G and R306ter, partially correlated with a black/brown coat and red/yellow coat, respectively. R306ter was found in the Yellow Labrador, Golden Retriever, and Irish Setter; the latter two had identical haplotypes but differed from the Yellow Labrador at three positions other than R306ter. In a larger survey of 194 dogs and 19 breeds, R306ter and a red/yellow coat were completely concordant except for the Red Chow. These results indicate that the e allele is caused by a common Mc1r loss-of-function mutation that either reoccurred or was subject to gene conversion during recent evolutionary history, and suggest that the allelic and locus relationships for dog coat color genes may be more analogous to those found in other mammals than previously thought.
View details for Web of Science ID 000084344800005
View details for PubMedID 10602988
Expression of Agouti protein is normally limited to the skin where it affects pigmentation, but ubiquitous expression causes obesity. An expressed sequence tag was identified that encodes Agouti-related protein, whose RNA is normally expressed in the hypothalamus and whose levels were increased eightfold in ob/ob mice. Recombinant Agouti-related protein was a potent, selective antagonist of Mc3r and Mc4r, melanocortin receptor subtypes implicated in weight regulation. Ubiquitous expression of human AGRP complementary DNA in transgenic mice caused obesity without altering pigmentation. Thus, Agouti-related protein is a neuropeptide implicated in the normal control of body weight downstream of leptin signaling.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XZ12400056
View details for PubMedID 9311920
Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0048294
View details for Web of Science ID 000310600500094
View details for PubMedID 23118974
Color markings among felid species display both a remarkable diversity and a common underlying periodicity. A similar range of patterns in domestic cats suggests a conserved mechanism whose appearance can be altered by selection. We identified the gene responsible for tabby pattern variation in domestic cats as Transmembrane aminopeptidase Q (Taqpep), which encodes a membrane-bound metalloprotease. Analyzing 31 other felid species, we identified Taqpep as the cause of the rare king cheetah phenotype, in which spots coalesce into blotches and stripes. Histologic, genomic expression, and transgenic mouse studies indicate that paracrine expression of Endothelin3 (Edn3) coordinates localized color differences. We propose a two-stage model in which Taqpep helps to establish a periodic pre-pattern during skin development that is later implemented by differential expression of Edn3.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1220893
View details for Web of Science ID 000308912900051
View details for PubMedID 22997338
Animals display incredibly diverse color patterns yet little is known about the underlying genetic basis of these phenotypes. However, emerging results are reshaping our view of how the process of phenotypic evolution occurs. Here, we outline recent research from three particularly active areas of investigation: melanin pigmentation in Drosophila, wing patterning in butterflies, and pigment variation in lizards. For each system, we highlight (i) the function and evolution of color variation, (ii) various approaches that have been used to explore the genetic basis of pigment variation, and (iii) conclusions regarding the genetic basis of convergent evolution which have emerged from comparative analyses. Results from these studies indicate that natural variation in pigmentation is a particularly powerful tool to examine the molecular basis of evolution, especially with regard to convergent or parallel evolution. Comparison of these systems also reveals that the molecular basis of convergent evolution is heterogeneous, sometimes involving conserved mechanisms and sometimes not. In the near future, additional work in other emerging systems will substantially expand the scope of available comparisons.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2012.01014.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000305511200006
View details for PubMedID 22578174
Synchronous activation of neural networks is an important physiological mechanism, and dysregulation of synchrony forms the basis of epilepsy. We analyzed the propagation of synchronous activity through chronically epileptic neural networks. Electrocorticographic recordings from epileptic patients demonstrate remarkable variance in the pathways of propagation between sequential interictal spikes (IISs). Calcium imaging in chronically epileptic slice cultures demonstrates that pathway variance depends on the presence of GABAergic inhibition and that spike propagation becomes stereotyped following GABA receptor blockade. Computer modeling suggests that GABAergic quenching of local network activations leaves behind regions of refractory neurons, whose late recruitment forms the anatomical basis of variability during subsequent network activation. Targeted path scanning of slice cultures confirmed local activations, while ex vivo recordings of human epileptic tissue confirmed the dependence of interspike variance on GABA-mediated inhibition. These data support the hypothesis that the paths by which synchronous activity spreads through an epileptic network change with each activation, based on the recent history of localized activity that has been successfully inhibited.
View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5853-11.2012
View details for Web of Science ID 000300938100009
View details for PubMedID 22378874
For most of the world, human genome structure at a population level is shaped by interplay between ancient geographic isolation and more recent demographic shifts, factors that are captured by the concepts of biogeographic ancestry and admixture, respectively. The ancestry of non-admixed individuals can often be traced to a specific population in a precise region, but current approaches for studying admixed individuals generally yield coarse information in which genome ancestry proportions are identified according to continent of origin. Here we introduce a new analytic strategy for this problem that allows fine-grained characterization of admixed individuals with respect to both geographic and genomic coordinates. Ancestry segments from different continents, identified with a probabilistic model, are used to construct and study "virtual genomes" of admixed individuals. We apply this approach to a cohort of 492 parent-offspring trios from Mexico City. The relative contributions from the three continental-level ancestral populations-Africa, Europe, and America-vary substantially between individuals, and the distribution of haplotype block length suggests an admixing time of 10-15 generations. The European and Indigenous American virtual genomes of each Mexican individual can be traced to precise regions within each continent, and they reveal a gradient of Amerindian ancestry between indigenous people of southwestern Mexico and Mayans of the Yucatan Peninsula. This contrasts sharply with the African roots of African Americans, which have been characterized by a uniform mixing of multiple West African populations. We also use the virtual European and Indigenous American genomes to search for the signatures of selection in the ancestral populations, and we identify previously known targets of selection in other populations, as well as new candidate loci. The ability to infer precise ancestral components of admixed genomes will facilitate studies of disease-related phenotypes and will allow new insight into the adaptive and demographic history of indigenous people.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002410
View details for Web of Science ID 000299167900027
View details for PubMedID 22194699
Reduced gene dosage of ribosomal protein subunits has been implicated in 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome and Diamond Blackfan anemia, but the cellular and pathophysiologic defects associated with these conditions are enigmatic. Using conditional inactivation of the ribosomal protein S6 gene in laboratory mice, we found that reduced ribosomal protein gene dosage recapitulates cardinal features of the 5q- syndrome, including macrocytic anemia, erythroid hypoplasia, and megakaryocytic dysplasia with thrombocytosis, and that p53 plays a critical role in manifestation of these phenotypes. The blood cell abnormalities are accompanied by a reduction in the number of HSCs, a specific defect in late erythrocyte development, and suggest a disease-specific ontogenetic pathway for megakaryocyte development. Further studies of highly purified HSCs from healthy patients and from those with myelodysplastic syndrome link reduced expression of ribosomal protein genes to decreased RBC maturation and suggest an underlying and common pathophysiologic pathway for additional subtypes of myelodysplastic syndrome.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-11-318584
View details for Web of Science ID 000295359300028
View details for PubMedID 21788341
Agouti-related protein (AgRP) and agouti signaling protein (ASIP) are homologs that play critical roles in energy balance and pigmentation, respectively, by functioning as antagonistic ligands at their cognate melanocortin receptors. Signaling specificity is mediated in part through receptor binding selectivity brought about by alterations in the cysteine-rich carboxy-terminal domains of the ligands. AgRP binds with high affinity to the melanocortin 3 receptor and the melanocortin 4 receptor, but not to the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), whereas ASIP binds with high affinity to all three receptors. This work explores the structural basis for receptor selectivity by studying chimeric proteins developed by interchanging loops between the cysteine-rich domain of ASIP and the cysteine-rich domain of AgRP. Binding data demonstrate that melanocortin 4 receptor responds to all chimeras and is therefore highly tolerant of gross loop changes. By contrast, MC1R responds primarily to those chimeras with a sequence close to that of wild-type ASIP. Further analysis of binding and functional data suggests that the ASIP C-terminal loop (a six-amino-acid segment closed by the final disulfide bond) is essential for high-affinity MC1R binding and inverse agonism. Comparison with previously published molecular models suggests that this loop makes contact with the first extracellular loop of MC1R through a series of key hydrophobic interactions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.08.054
View details for Web of Science ID 000284674000004
View details for PubMedID 20831872
Hair color and skin color are frequently coordinated in mammalian species. To explore this, we have studied mutations in two different G protein coupled pathways, each of which affects the darkness of both hair and skin color. In each mouse mutant (Gnaq(Dsk1), Gna11(Dsk7), and Mc1r(e)), we analyzed the melanocyte density and the concentrations of eumelanin (black pigment) and pheomelanin (yellow pigment) in the hair or skin to determine the mechanisms regulating pigmentation. Surprisingly, we discovered that each mutation affects hair and skin color differently. Furthermore, we have found that in the epidermis, the melanocortin signaling pathway does not couple the synthesis of eumelanin with pheomelanin, as it does in hair follicles. Even by shared signaling pathways, hair and skin melanocytes are regulated quite independently.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2009.00609.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000270830600017
View details for PubMedID 19627560
Genome-wide scans for recent positive selection in humans have yielded insight into the mechanisms underlying the extensive phenotypic diversity in our species, but have focused on a limited number of populations. Here, we present an analysis of recent selection in a global sample of 53 populations, using genotype data from the Human Genome Diversity-CEPH Panel. We refine the geographic distributions of known selective sweeps, and find extensive overlap between these distributions for populations in the same continental region but limited overlap between populations outside these groupings. We present several examples of previously unrecognized candidate targets of selection, including signals at a number of genes in the NRG-ERBB4 developmental pathway in non-African populations. Analysis of recently identified genes involved in complex diseases suggests that there has been selection on loci involved in susceptibility to type II diabetes. Finally, we search for local adaptation between geographically close populations, and highlight several examples.
View details for DOI 10.1101/gr.087577.108
View details for Web of Science ID 000265668800016
View details for PubMedID 19307593
Alternating patches of black and yellow pigment are a ubiquitous feature of mammalian color variation that contributes to camouflage, species recognition, and morphologic diversity. X-linked determinants of this pattern--recognized by variegation in females but not in males--have been described in the domestic cat as Orange, and in the Syrian hamster as Sex-linked yellow (Sly), but are curiously absent from other vertebrate species. Using a comparative genomic approach, we develop molecular markers and a linkage map for the euchromatic region of the Syrian hamster X chromosome that places Sly in a region homologous to the centromere-proximal region of human Xp. Comparison to analogous work carried out for Orange in domestic cats indicates, surprisingly, that the cat and hamster mutations lie in nonhomologous regions of the X chromosome. We also identify the molecular cause of recessively inherited black coat color in hamsters (historically referred to as nonagouti) as a Cys115Tyr mutation in the Agouti gene. Animals doubly mutant for Sly and nonagouti exhibit a Sly phenotype. Our results indicate that Sly represents a melanocortin pathway component that acts similarly to, but is genetically distinct from, Mc1r and that has implications for understanding both the evolutionary history and the mutational mechanisms of pigment-type switching.
View details for DOI 10.1534/genetics.108.095018
View details for Web of Science ID 000270213700022
View details for PubMedID 19189957
Morphological diversity within closely related species is an essential aspect of evolution and adaptation. Mutations in the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) gene contribute to pigmentary diversity in natural populations of fish, birds, and many mammals. However, melanism in the gray wolf, Canis lupus, is caused by a different melanocortin pathway component, the K locus, that encodes a beta-defensin protein that acts as an alternative ligand for Mc1r. We show that the melanistic K locus mutation in North American wolves derives from past hybridization with domestic dogs, has risen to high frequency in forested habitats, and exhibits a molecular signature of positive selection. The same mutation also causes melanism in the coyote, Canis latrans, and in Italian gray wolves, and hence our results demonstrate how traits selected in domesticated species can influence the morphological diversity of their wild relatives.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1165448
View details for Web of Science ID 000263876700041
View details for PubMedID 19197024
BRAF and NRAS are common targets for somatic mutations in benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from melanocytes situated in epithelial structures, and lead to constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. However, BRAF and NRAS mutations are absent in a number of other melanocytic neoplasms in which the equivalent oncogenic events are currently unknown. Here we report frequent somatic mutations in the heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit, GNAQ, in blue naevi (83%) and ocular melanoma of the uvea (46%). The mutations occur exclusively in codon 209 in the Ras-like domain and result in constitutive activation, turning GNAQ into a dominant acting oncogene. Our results demonstrate an alternative route to MAP kinase activation in melanocytic neoplasia, providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature07586
View details for Web of Science ID 000262852200045
View details for PubMedID 19078957
Named originally for their effects on peripheral end organs, the melanocortin system controls a diverse set of physiological processes through a series of five G-protein-coupled receptors and several sets of small peptide ligands. The central melanocortin system plays an essential role in homeostatic regulation of body weight, in which two alternative ligands, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and agouti-related protein, stimulate and inhibit receptor signaling in several key brain regions that ultimately affect food intake and energy expenditure. Much of what we know about the relationship between central melanocortin signaling and body weight regulation stems from genetic studies. Comparative genomic studies indicate that melanocortin receptors used for controlling pigmentation and body weight regulation existed more than 500 million years ago in primitive vertebrates, but that fine-grained control of melanocortin receptors through neuropeptides and endogenous antagonists developed more recently. Recent studies based on dog coat-color genetics revealed a new class of melanocortin ligands, the beta-defensins, which reveal the potential for cross talk between the melanocortin and the immune systems.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ijo.2008.234
View details for Web of Science ID 000262376700005
View details for PubMedID 19136986
Two known types of leptin-responsive neurons reside within the arcuate nucleus: the agouti gene-related peptide (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuron and the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuron. By deleting the leptin receptor gene (Lepr) specifically in AgRP/NPY and/or POMC neurons of mice, we examined the several and combined contributions of these neurons to leptin action. Body weight and adiposity were increased by Lepr deletion from AgRP and POMC neurons individually, and simultaneous deletion in both neurons (A+P LEPR-KO mice) further increased these measures. Young (periweaning) A+P LEPR-KO mice exhibit hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure, with increased weight gain, oxidative sparing of triglycerides, and increased fat accumulation. Interestingly, however, many of these abnormalities were attenuated in adult animals, and high doses of leptin partially suppress food intake in the A+P LEPR-KO mice. Although mildly hyperinsulinemic, the A+P LEPR-KO mice displayed normal glucose tolerance and fertility. Thus, AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons each play mandatory roles in aspects of leptin-regulated energy homeostasis, high leptin levels in adult mice mitigate the importance of leptin-responsiveness in these neurons for components of energy balance, suggesting the presence of other leptin-regulated pathways that partially compensate for the lack of leptin action on the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons.
View details for DOI 10.1210/en.2007-1132
View details for Web of Science ID 000254264100037
View details for PubMedID 18162515
Nearly all neurodegenerative diseases are associated with abnormal accumulation of ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates within neuronal inclusion bodies. To directly test the hypothesis that depletion of cellular Ub is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration, we have disrupted Ubb, one of four genes that supply Ub in the mouse. Here, we report that loss of Ubb led to a progressive degenerative disorder affecting neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. This neurodegenerative cytopathology was accompanied by impaired hypothalamic control of energy balance and adult-onset obesity. Ubb was highly expressed in vulnerable hypothalamic neurons and total Ub levels were selectively reduced in the hypothalamus of Ubb-null mice. These findings demonstrate that maintenance of adequate supplies of cellular Ub is essential for neuronal survival and establish that decreased Ub availability is sufficient to cause neuronal dysfunction and death.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0800096105
View details for Web of Science ID 000253930600064
View details for PubMedID 18299572
Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on hypothalamic neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus to regulate energy homeostasis. One of the leptin-regulated neuronal subtypes in the ARC are agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons, which are involved in the regulation of food intake and are directly inhibited by leptin. Leptin activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), but the role of Stat3 in the regulation of AgRP neurons is unclear. Here we show that mice expressing a constitutively active version of Stat3 selectively in AgRP neurons are lean and exhibit relative resistance to diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, this phenotype arises from increased locomotor activity in the presence of unaltered AgRP expression. These data demonstrate that Stat3-dependent signaling in AgRP neurons in the ARC controls locomotor activity independently of AgRP regulation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2008.01.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000253727300010
View details for PubMedID 18316029
Human genetic diversity is shaped by both demographic and biological factors and has fundamental implications for understanding the genetic basis of diseases. We studied 938 unrelated individuals from 51 populations of the Human Genome Diversity Panel at 650,000 common single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. Individual ancestry and population substructure were detectable with very high resolution. The relationship between haplotype heterozygosity and geography was consistent with the hypothesis of a serial founder effect with a single origin in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, we observed a pattern of ancestral allele frequency distributions that reflects variation in population dynamics among geographic regions. This data set allows the most comprehensive characterization to date of human genetic variation.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1153717
View details for Web of Science ID 000253311700046
View details for PubMedID 18292342
Manipulation of gene expression in melanocytes is an important tool for studying pigment cell biology. We constructed transgenic mice in which Cre recombinase was placed under the control of regulatory elements from the Microphthalmia-associated transcriptional factor (Mitf) gene using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Bacterial artificial chromosome that contained either 50 or 108 kb DNA 5' to the melanocyte-specific (1M) transcriptional start site gave rise to transgenic lines in which Cre is expressed specifically in cells of the melanocyte lineage, as judged by activation of the Gt(Rosa)26(tm1Sor)(R26R) reporter locus. Activation of R26R is first detectable in melanoblasts of midgestation embryos, and completely marks all melanocyte components of the skin in postnatal animals. To test the utility of the MitfCre transgene, we used a loxP-targeted allele of the protein kinase A alpha catalytic subunit (Prkaca), modified such that Cre-mediated recombination activates PKA signaling. On an agouti background, animals carrying both the MitfCre transgene and the targeted Prkaca allele (CalphaR) exhibited a darker coat color than control littermates, due to a shift from pheomelanin to eumelanin synthesis. Our results confirm that PKA signaling is a key component of pigment type-switching, and provide a new tool for studying pigment cell biology.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2007.00425.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000252879900010
View details for PubMedID 18353144
Members of the PIAS (for protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family play critical roles in modulating the activity of a variety of transcriptional regulators. Zimp10, a novel PIAS-like protein, is a transcriptional coregulator and may be involved in the modification of chromatin through interactions with the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes. Here, we investigate the biological role of Zimp10 in zimp10-deficient mice. Homozygosity for the Zimp10-targeted allele resulted in developmental arrest at approximately embryonic day 10.5. Analysis of knockout embryos revealed severe defects in the reorganization of the yolk sac vascular plexus. No significant abnormality in hematopoietic potential was observed in zimp10 null mice. Microarray and quantified reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that the expression of the Fos family member Fra-1, which is involved in extraembryonic vascular development, was reduced in yolk sac tissues of zimp10 null embryos. Using fra-1 promoter/reporter constructs, we further demonstrate the regulatory role of Zimp10 on the transcription of Fra-1. This study provides evidence to demonstrate a crucial role for Zimp10 in vasculogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1128/MCB.00771-07
View details for Web of Science ID 000251925300024
View details for PubMedID 17967885
Mutations in the transcription factor Foxn1 cause the nude phenotype in mice, which is characterized by a lack of visible hair. New work by Weiner et al. (2007) in this issue of Cell now shows that Foxn1 also contributes to hair color by marking which cells are to receive pigment from melanocytes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2007.08.032
View details for Web of Science ID 000249581500010
View details for PubMedID 17803901
Agouti-related protein encodes a neuropeptide that stimulates food intake. Agrp expression in the brain is restricted to neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and is elevated by states of negative energy balance. The molecular mechanisms underlying Agrp regulation, however, remain poorly defined. Using a combination of transgenic and comparative sequence analysis, we have previously identified a 760 bp conserved region upstream of Agrp which contains STAT binding elements that participate in Agrp transcriptional regulation. In this study, we attempt to improve the specificity for detecting conserved elements in this region by comparing genomic sequences from 10 mammalian species. Our analysis reveals a symmetrical organization of conserved sequences upstream of Agrp, which cluster into two inverted repeat elements. Conserved sequences within these elements suggest a role for homeodomain proteins in the regulation of Agrp and provide additional targets for functional evaluation.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0000702
View details for Web of Science ID 000207452400006
View details for PubMedID 17684549
Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to act as a key sensing mechanism, responding to hormones and nutrients in the regulation of energy homeostasis. However, the precise neuronal populations and cellular mechanisms involved are unclear. The effects of long-term manipulation of hypothalamic AMPK on energy balance are also unknown. To directly address such issues, we generated POMC alpha 2KO and AgRP alpha 2KO mice lacking AMPK alpha2 in proopiomelanocortin- (POMC-) and agouti-related protein-expressing (AgRP-expressing) neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis. POMC alpha 2KO mice developed obesity due to reduced energy expenditure and dysregulated food intake but remained sensitive to leptin. In contrast, AgRP alpha 2KO mice developed an age-dependent lean phenotype with increased sensitivity to a melanocortin agonist. Electrophysiological studies in AMPK alpha2-deficient POMC or AgRP neurons revealed normal leptin or insulin action but absent responses to alterations in extracellular glucose levels, showing that glucose-sensing signaling mechanisms in these neurons are distinct from those pathways utilized by leptin or insulin. Taken together with the divergent phenotypes of POMC alpha 2KO and AgRP alpha 2KO mice, our findings suggest that while AMPK plays a key role in hypothalamic function, it does not act as a general sensor and integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI31516
View details for Web of Science ID 000248478100040
View details for PubMedID 17671657
A null mutation in the gene encoding the putative E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mahogunin causes spongiform neurodegeneration, a recessively transmitted prion-like disease in mice. However, no substrates of Mahogunin have been identified, and the cellular role of Mahogunin is unknown. Here, we report the identification of TSG101, a key component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-I, as a specific Mahogunin substrate. We find that Mahogunin interacts with the ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) domain of TSG101 via its PSAP motif and that it catalyzes monoubiquitylation of TSG101 both in vivo and in vitro. Depletion of Mahogunin by small interfering RNAs in mammalian cells disrupts endosome-to-lysosome trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor, resulting in prolonged activation of a downstream signaling cascade. Our findings support a role for Mahogunin in a proteasome-independent ubiquitylation pathway and suggest a link between dysregulation of endosomal trafficking and spongiform neurodegeneration.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E06-09-0787
View details for Web of Science ID 000245443100001
View details for PubMedID 17229889
Genetic variation at the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is an important risk factor for developing ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin cancer, the most common form of cancer in humans. The underlying mechanisms by which the MC1R defends against UV-induced skin cancer are not known. We used neonatal mouse skin (which, like human skin, contains a mixture of melanocytes and keratinocytes) to study how pigment cells and Mc1r genotype affect the genome-level response to UV radiation. Animals without viable melanocytes (Kit(W-v)/Kit(W-v)) or animals lacking a functional Mc1r (Mc1r(e)/Mc1r(e)) were exposed to sunburn-level doses of UVB radiation, and the patterns of large-scale gene expression in the basal epidermis were compared to each other and to nonmutant animals. Our analysis revealed discrete Kit- and Mc1r-dependent UVB transcriptional responses in the basal epidermis. The Kit-dependent UVB response was characterized largely by an enrichment of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress genes, highlighting a distinctive role for pigmented melanocytes in mediating antioxidant defenses against genotoxic stresses within the basal epidermal environment. By contrast, the Mc1r-dependent UVB response contained an abundance of genes associated with regulating the cell cycle and oncogenesis. To test the clinical relevance of these observations, we analyzed publicly available data sets for primary melanoma and melanoma metastases and found that the set of genes specific for the Mc1r-dependent UVB response was able to differentiate between different clinical subtypes. Our analysis also revealed that the classes of genes induced by UVB differ from those repressed by UVB with regard to their biological functions, their overall number, and their size. The findings described here offer new insights into the transcriptional nature of the UV response in the skin and provide a molecular framework for the underlying mechanisms by which melanocytes and the Mc1r independently mediate and afford protection against UV radiation.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030009
View details for Web of Science ID 000243838600005
View details for PubMedID 17222061
With the goal of increasing the number of genetic entry points for studying physiologic processes and human disease, large-scale, systematic, chemical mutagenesis projects in mice have been initiated in several different centers. We have been studying mouse mutants that exhibit dominantly inherited defects in either skin and/or hair color. Here, we describe a bright coat color mutant, Bright coat color 1 (Bcc1), which develops light-colored hair at 4 weeks of age, and when homozygous exhibits oral leukoplakia and blistering, and growth retardation. We identified a missense mutation in mutant animals that predicts an N154S amino-acid substitution in the 1A domain of Keratin 4 (encoded by the Krt2-4 gene), a region known to be mutated in human patients with white sponge nevus (WSN). Bcc1 recapitulates the gross pathologic, histologic, and genetic aspects of the human disorder, WSN.
View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.jid.5700498;
View details for Web of Science ID 000243192200010
View details for PubMedID 16858417
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that signals body energy status to the brain by acting on multiple neuronal subgroups in the hypothalamus, including those that express proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) and agouti-related protein (Agrp). Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is an important intracellular signaling molecule activated by leptin, and previous studies have shown that mice carrying a mutated leptin receptor that abolished Stat3 binding are grossly obese. To determine the extent to which Stat3 signaling in Pomc neurons was responsible for these effects, we constructed Pomc-specific Stat3 mutants using a Cre recombinase transgene driven by the Pomc promoter. We find that Pomc expression is diminished in the mutant mice, suggesting that Stat3 is required for Pomc transcription. Pomc-specific Stat3 female mutant mice exhibit a 2-fold increase in fat pad mass but only a slight increase in total body weight. Mutant mice remain responsive to leptin-induced hypophagia and are not hypersensitive to a high-fat diet; however, mutant mice fail to mount a normal compensatory refeeding response. These results demonstrate a requirement for Stat3 in transcriptional regulation of Pomc but indicate that this circuit is only one of several components that underlie the neuronal response to leptin and the role of Stat3 in that response.
View details for DOI 10.1210/en.2006-1119
View details for Web of Science ID 000242935200010
View details for PubMedID 17023536
Energy homeostasis depends on the regulation of hypothalamic neurons by leptin, an adipocyte hormone whose circulating levels communicate body energy stores. Leptin activates the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in hypothalamic neurons, including neuronal subtypes producing Agouti-related protein (Agrp), a neuropeptide that stimulates feeding. Previous studies have suggested a model in which high levels of Agrp transcription during fasting represent a default state that is actively repressed by phospho-Stat3 induced by leptin signaling in the fed state. We identify putative Stat3 binding elements in the Agrp promoter that have been highly conserved during vertebrate evolution. Using a reporter assay in transgenic mice that faithfully recapitulates normal regulation of Agrp, we show that these sites are required, but in a way opposite to that predicted by the existing model: mutation of the sites leads to a default state characterized by a low level of Agrp transcription and insensitivity to fasting. We also find that removing activatable Stat3 from Agrp neurons has no detectable effect on steady-state levels of Agrp mRNA in the fed or fasted state. These results suggest a new model for transcriptional regulation of orexigenic neuropeptides in which the default level of expression is low in the fed state, and transcriptional activation in response to fasting is mediated by factors other than Stat3.
View details for DOI 10.1210/me.2006-0107
View details for Web of Science ID 000240785100028
View details for PubMedID 16709597
The capacity to adjust food intake in response to changing energy requirements is essential for survival. Recent progress has provided an insight into the molecular, cellular and behavioural mechanisms that link changes of body fat stores to adaptive adjustments of feeding behaviour. The physiological importance of this homeostatic control system is highlighted by the severe obesity that results from dysfunction of any of several of its key components. This new information provides a biological context within which to consider the global obesity epidemic and identifies numerous potential avenues for therapeutic intervention and future research.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature05026
View details for Web of Science ID 000240622000036
View details for PubMedID 16988703
The melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) plays a central role in cutaneous biology, but is expressed at very low levels by a small fraction of cells in the skin. In humans, loss-of-function MC1R mutations cause fair skin, freckling, red hair, and increased predisposition to melanoma; in mice, Mc1r loss-of-function is responsible for the recessive yellow mutation, associated with pheomelanic hair and a decreased number of epidermal melanocytes. To better understand how Mc1r signaling affects different cutaneous phenotypes, we examined large-scale patterns of gene expression in different skin components (whole epidermal sheets, basal epidermal cells and whole skins) of neonatal (P2.5) normal and recessive yellow mice, starting with a 26K mouse cDNA microarray. From c. 17 000 genes whose levels could be accurately measured in neonatal skin, we identified 883, 2097 and 552 genes that were uniquely expressed in the suprabasal epidermis, basal epidermis and dermis, respectively; specific biologic roles could be assigned for each class. Comparison of normal and recessive yellow mice revealed 69 differentially expressed genes, of which the majority had not been previously implicated in Mc1r signaling. Surprisingly, many of the Mc1r-dependent genes are expressed in cells other than melanocytes, even though Mc1r expression in the skin is confined almost exclusively to epidermal melanocytes. These results reveal new targets for Mc1r signaling, and point to a previously unappreciated role for a Mc1r-dependent paracrine effect of melanocytes on other components of the skin.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-0749.2006.00305.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000237597600003
View details for PubMedID 16704453
Chemical mutagenesis in the mouse has increased the utility of phenotype-driven genetics as a means for studying different organ systems, developmental pathways, and pathologic processes. From a large-scale screen for dominant phenotypes in mice, a novel class of pigmentation mutants was identified by dark skin (Dsk). We describe a Dsk mutant, Dsk12, which models the human disease, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK). At 2 days of age, mutant animals exhibit intraepidermal blisters and erosions at sites of trauma, and by 2 weeks of age develop significant hyperkeratosis. We identified a missense mutation in mutant animals that predicts an S194P amino acid substitution in the 1A domain of Keratin 1, a known target for human mutations that cause EHK. Dsk12 recapitulates the gross pathologic, histologic, and genetic aspects of the human disorder, EHK.
View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.jid.5700241
View details for Web of Science ID 000238968700016
View details for PubMedID 16528356
Agouti-related protein (Agrp) encodes a hypothalamic neuropeptide that promotes positive energy balance by stimulating food intake and reducing energy expenditure. Agrp expression in the brain is restricted to neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and expression levels are elevated as a consequence of food deprivation. We tested a series of bacterial artificial chromosome reporter constructs with varying amounts of sequence flanking the Agrp transcription unit in transgenic mice to identify and refine a region of DNA capable of recapitulating characteristics of Agrp expression. We report that a 42.5-kb region upstream of Agrp, containing three distinct regions that are evolutionarily conserved between mouse and human, is necessary and sufficient to consistently drive reporter expression specifically within AgRP neurons in a fasting-responsive manner. In addition, we demonstrate that this region allows for the stable expression of Cre recombinase in transgenic mice, providing a genetic tool for studying anabolic neural circuits that control energy balance.
View details for DOI 10.1210/en.2004-0956
View details for Web of Science ID 000225109400046
View details for PubMedID 15345681
The interaction between two genes, Agouti and Melanocortin-1 receptor ( Mc1r), produces diverse pigment patterns in mammals by regulating the type, amount, and distribution pattern of the two pigment types found in mammalian hair: eumelanin (brown/black) and pheomelanin (yellow/red). In domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris), there is a tremendous variation in coat color patterns between and within breeds; however, previous studies suggest that the molecular genetics of pigment-type switching in dogs may differ from that of other mammals. Here we report the identification and characterization of the Agouti gene from domestic dogs, predicted to encode a 131-amino-acid secreted protein 98% identical to the fox homolog, and which maps to chromosome CFA24 in a region of conserved linkage. Comparative analysis of the Doberman Pinscher Agouti cDNA, the fox cDNA, and 180 kb of Doberman Pinscher genomic DNA suggests that, as with laboratory mice, different pigment-type-switching patterns in the canine family are controlled by alternative usage of different promoters and untranslated first exons. A small survey of Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, Australian Shepherds, and German Shepherd Dogs did not uncover any polymorphisms, but we identified a single nucleotide variant in black German Shepherd Dogs predicted to cause an Arg-to-Cys substitution at codon 96, which is likely to account for recessive inheritance of a uniform black coat.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00335-004-23778-1
View details for Web of Science ID 000224054000005
View details for PubMedID 15520882
View details for PubMedID 14534576
The domestic dog exhibits a variety of coat colors that encompass a wide range of variation among different breeds. Very little is known about the molecular biology of dog pigmentation; current understanding is based mostly on traditional breeding experiments, which in some cases have suggested genetic interactions that are different from those reported in other mammals. We have examined the molecular genetics of dominant black, a uniform coat color characteristic of black Labrador retrievers or Newfoundlands that has been proposed to be caused by either variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r) or by variation in the Agouti gene (A). We identified several coding polymorphisms within Mc1r and several simple sequence repeat polymorphisms closely linked to A, and examined their inheritance in a Labrador retriever x greyhound cross that segregates dominant black. No single Mc1r allele was found consistently in animals carrying dominant black, and neither Mc1r nor A cosegregated with dominant black. These results refine our understanding of mammalian coat color inheritance and suggest that dominant black coat color in dogs is caused by a gene not previously implicated in pigment type switching.
View details for DOI 10.1093/jhered/esg016
View details for Web of Science ID 000182413500012
View details for PubMedID 12692166
Switching from eumelanin to pheomelanin synthesis during hair growth is accomplished by transient synthesis of Agouti protein, an inverse agonist for the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r). The coat color mutations mahogany and mahoganoid prevent hair follicle melanocytes from responding to Agouti protein. The gene mutated in mahogany, which is also known as Attractin (Atrn), encodes a type I transmembrane protein that functions as an accessory receptor for Agouti protein. We have recently determined that the gene mutated in mahoganoid, which is also known as Mahogunin (Mgrn1), encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Like Attractin, Mahogunin is conserved in invertebrate genomes, and its absence causes a pleiotropic phenotype that includes spongiform neurodegeneration.
View details for Web of Science ID 000184303800037
View details for PubMedID 12851328
The metalloprotease-disintegrin family, or ADAM, proteins, are implicated in cell-cell interactions, cell fusion, and cell signaling, and are widely distributed among metazoan phyla. Orthologous relationships have been defined for a few ADAM proteins including ADAM10 (Kuzbanian), and ADAM17 (TACE), but evolutionary relationships are not clear for the majority of family members. Human ADAM33 refers to a testis cDNA clone that does not contain a complete open reading frame, but portions of the predicted protein are similar to Xenopus laevis ADAM13.In a 48 kb region of mouse DNA adjacent to the Attractin gene on mouse chromosome 2, we identified sequences very similar to human ADAM33. A full-length mouse cDNA was identified by a combination of gene prediction programs and RT-PCR, and the probable full-length human cDNA was identified by comparison to human genomic sequence in the homologous region on chromosome 20p13. Mouse ADAM33 is 44% identical to Xenopus laevis ADAM13, however a phylogenetic alignment and consideration of functional domains suggests that the two genes are not orthologous. Mouse Adam33 is widely expressed, most highly in the adult brain, heart, kidney, lung and testis.While mouse ADAM33 is similar to Xenopus ADAM13 in sequence, further examination of its embryonic expression pattern, catalytic activity and protein interactions will be required to assess the functional relationship between these two proteins. Adam33 is expressed in the mouse adult brain and could play a role in complex processes that require cell-cell communication.
View details for Web of Science ID 000179726900001
View details for PubMedID 11897009
Pleiotropic effects of melanocortin signaling were first described nearly 100 years ago when mice carrying the lethal yellow (A(y)) allele of the Agouti coat color gene were recognized to develop increased growth and adiposity. Work from our laboratory and others over the last several years has demonstrated that the non-pigmentary effects of A(y) are caused by ectopic expression of Agouti protein, a paracrine signaling molecule whose normal function is to inhibit signaling through the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), but which can mimic the effects of Agouti-related protein (Agrp), a homologous neuropeptide produced in the medial portion of the arcuate nucleus that acts as a potent antagonist of the Mc3r and Mc4r. Recently we have used the genetics of pigmentation as an in vivo screening system to analyze other mutations in the Agouti-melanocortin pathway, leading to the identification of Attractin (Atrn), a widely expressed type I transmembrane protein that serves as an accessory receptor for Agouti protein. Surprisingly, homologs of Atrn are found in fruitflies and nematodes, even though Agouti and/or Agouti-related protein are found only in vertebrates. Insight into this apparent paradox now comes from studies of different Atrn alleles, in which we find hyperactivity, abnormal myelination, and widespread CNS vacuolation. We suggest that the neurodegenerative phenotype reflects the ancestral function of Atrn to facilitate and/or maintain cell-cell interactions in the nervous system. Expression in neurectodermal cells during vertebrate evolution may have allowed Atrn to be recruited by the Agouti-melanocortin system to control coat color.
View details for DOI 10.1081/RRS-120014588
View details for Web of Science ID 000179631000006
View details for PubMedID 12503608
Thyroid hormones are key regulators of metabolism that modulate transcription via nuclear receptors. Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased metabolic rate, protein breakdown, and weight loss. Although the molecular actions of thyroid hormones have been studied thoroughly, their pleiotropic effects are mediated by complex changes in expression of an unknown number of target genes. Here, we measured patterns of skeletal muscle gene expression in five healthy men treated for 14 days with 75 microg of triiodothyronine, using 24,000 cDNA element microarrays. To analyze the data, we used a new statistical method that identifies significant changes in expression and estimates the false discovery rate. The 381 up-regulated genes were involved in a wide range of cellular functions including transcriptional control, mRNA maturation, protein turnover, signal transduction, cellular trafficking, and energy metabolism. Only two genes were down-regulated. Most of the genes are novel targets of thyroid hormone. Cluster analysis of triiodothyronine-regulated gene expression among 19 different human tissues or cell lines revealed sets of coregulated genes that serve similar biologic functions. These results define molecular signatures that help to understand the physiology and pathophysiology of thyroid hormone action.
View details for Web of Science ID 000173689600008
View details for PubMedID 11827947
To simplify the analysis of asthma susceptibility genes located at human chromosome 5q23-35, we examined congenic mice that differed at the homologous chromosomal segment. We identified a Mendelian trait encoded by T cell and Airway Phenotype Regulator (Tapr). Tapr is genetically distinct from known cytokine genes and controls the development of airway hyperreactivity and T cell production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13. Positional cloning identified a gene family that encodes T cell membrane proteins (TIMs); major sequence variants of this gene family (Tim) completely cosegregated with Tapr. The human homolog of TIM-1 is the hepatitis A virus (HAV) receptor, which may explain the inverse relationship between HAV infection and the development of atopy.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ni739
View details for Web of Science ID 000172473200012
View details for PubMedID 11725301
Mutations of the mouse Attractin (Atrn; formerly mahogany) gene were originally recognized because they suppress Agouti pigment type switching. More recently, effects independent of Agouti have been recognized: mice homozygous for the Atrn(mg-3J) allele are resistant to diet-induced obesity and also develop abnormal myelination and vacuolation in the central nervous system. To better understand the pathophysiology and relationship of these pleiotropic effects, we further characterized the molecular abnormalities responsible for two additional Atrn alleles, Atrn(mg) and Atrn(mg-L), and examined in parallel the phenotypes of homozygous and compound heterozygous animals. We find that the three alleles have similar effects on pigmentation and neurodegeneration, with a relative severity of Atrn(mg-3J) > Atrn(mg) > Atrn(mg-L), which also corresponds to the effects of the three alleles on levels of normal Atrn mRNA. Animals homozygous for Atrn(mg-3J) or Atrn(mg), but not Atrn(mg-L), show reduced body weight, reduced adiposity, and increased locomotor activity, all in the presence of normal food intake. These results confirm that the mechanism responsible for the neuropathological alteration is a loss--rather than gain--of function, indicate that abnormal body weight in Atrn mutant mice is caused by a central process leading to increased energy expenditure, and demonstrate that pigmentation is more sensitive to levels of Atrn mRNA than are nonpigmentary phenotypes.
View details for Web of Science ID 000170603700024
View details for PubMedID 11514456
The mouse mahogany mutation affects melanocortin signaling pathways that regulate energy homeostasis and hair color. The gene mutated in mahogany mice encodes attractin, a large transmembrane protein that is broadly expressed and conserved among multicellular animals. Mouse attractin is likely to have additional roles outside melanocortin signaling, and cloning of the gene provides information that can be used to form testable hypotheses about its biochemical function.
View details for Web of Science ID 000166163000006
View details for PubMedID 11150734
Maf is a basic domain/leucine zipper domain protein originally identified as a proto-oncogene whose consensus target site in vitro, the T-MARE, is an extended version of an AP-1 site normally recognized by Fos and Jun. Maf and the closely related family members Neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl), L-Maf, and Krml1/MafB have been implicated in a wide variety of developmental and physiologic roles; however, mutations in vivo have been described only for Krml1/MafB, in which a loss-of-function causes abnormalities in hindbrain development due to failure to activate the Hoxa3 and Hoxb3 genes. We have used gene targeting to replace Maf coding sequences with those of lacZ, and have carried out a comprehensive analysis of embryonic expression and the homozygous mutant phenotype in the eye. Maf is expressed in the lens vesicle after invagination, and becomes highly upregulated in the equatorial zone, the site at which self-renewing anterior epithelial cells withdraw from the cell cycle and terminally differentiate into posterior fiber cells. Posterior lens cells in Maf(lacZ) mutant mice exhibit failure of elongation at embryonic day 11.5, do not express (&agr;)A- and all of the (beta)-crystallin genes, and display inappropriately high levels of DNA synthesis. This phenotype partially overlaps with those reported for gene targeting of Prox1 and Sox1; however, expression of these genes is grossly normal, as is expression of Eya1, Eya2, Pax6, and Sox2. Recombinant Maf protein binds to T-MARE sites in the (alpha)A-, (beta)B2-, and (beta)A4-crystallin promoters but fails to bind to a point mutation in the (alpha)A-crystallin promoter that has been shown previously to be required for promoter function. Our results indicate that Maf directly activates many if not all of the (beta)-crystallin genes, and suggest a model for coordinating cell cycle withdrawal with terminal differentiation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000085399700010
View details for PubMedID 10603348
Insertional mutagenesis based on gene trap vectors that capture endogenous splice sites is a promising tool for functional genomics. Several groups have proposed large-scale gene trap screens, but questions remain as to the type of vectors and their design. We report a set of plasmid-encoded gene trap vectors and the disruption of two novel genes. Our results include a comparison of the relative gene trapping efficiencies of two different splice acceptor sequences in ES cells and an analysis of the structure of several gene trap insertions.
View details for Web of Science ID 000085580100005
View details for PubMedID 10767988
Defects in signaling by leptin, a hormone produced primarily by adipose tissue that informs the brain of the body's energy reserves, result in obesity in mice and humans. However, the majority of obese humans do not have abnormalities in leptin or its receptor but instead exhibit leptin resistance that could result from defects in downstream mediators of leptin action. Recently, two potential downstream mediators, agouti-related protein (Agrp) and its receptor, the melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r), have been identified. Agrp and Mc4r are excellent candidates for human disorders of body weight regulation and represent promising targets for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of these disorders.
View details for Web of Science ID 000081619900009
View details for PubMedID 10366820
Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) regulate pigmentation and body weight, respectively, by antagonizing melanocortin receptor signaling. A carboxyl-terminal fragment of Agouti protein, Ser73-Cys131, is sufficient for melanocortin receptor antagonism, but Western blot analysis of skin extracts reveals that the electrophoretic mobility of native Agouti protein corresponds to the mature full-length form, His23-Cys131. To investigate the potential role of the amino-terminal residues, we compared the function of full-length and carboxyl-terminal fragments of Agrp and Agouti protein in a sensitive bioassay based on pigment dispersion in Xenopus melanophores. We find that carboxyl-terminal Agouti protein, and all forms of Agrp tested, act solely by competitive antagonism of melanocortin action. However, full-length Agouti protein acts by an additional mechanism that is time- and temperature-dependent, depresses maximal levels of pigment dispersion, and is therefore likely to be mediated by receptor down-regulation. Apparent down-regulation is not observed for a mixture of amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal fragments. We propose that the phenotypic effects of Agouti in vivo represent a bipartite mechanism: competitive antagonism of agonist binding by the carboxyl-terminal portion of Agouti protein and down-regulation of melanocortin receptor signaling by an unknown mechanism that requires residues in the amino terminus of the Agouti protein.
View details for Web of Science ID 000080560100076
View details for PubMedID 10336487
Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is an orexigenic neuropeptide that acts via central melanocortin receptors, and whose messenger RNA (mRNA) levels are elevated in leptin-deficient mice. Fasting associated with a decline in circulating leptin normally causes a 15-fold elevation of hypothalamic Agrp mRNA levels but has no effect in leptin-deficient mice. Chronic hyperleptinemia associated with the tubby and Cpe(fat) mutations has no effect on Agrp mRNA levels, but short term leptin administration causes a 17% reduction of Agrp mRNA levels in nonmutant mice and a 700% reduction in leptin-deficient mice. In young nonobese animals, melanocortin receptor blockade associated with the Ay mutation causes complete resistance to leptin-induced weight loss. Dual in situ hybridization reveals that Agrp-expressing neurons in the medial portion of the arcuate nucleus constitute a subpopulation different from Pomc-expressing neurons, and that a significant proportion of Agrp-expressing neurons (10-25%) coexpresses the leptin receptor, Lepr-b. Immunocytochemistry confirms distinct locations of AGRP- and POMC-expressing cell bodies, but reveals an overlapping distribution of their terminal fields in the arcuate nucleus, the paraventricular hypothalamus, and the dorsomedial hypothalamus. These results suggest that in the fed state, AGRP is normally suppressed by leptin, and that release of this suppression during fasting leads to increased ingestive behavior.
View details for Web of Science ID 000079801200052
View details for PubMedID 10218993
Agouti protein and agouti-related protein are homologous paracrine signalling molecules that normally regulate hair colour and body weight, respectively, by antagonizing signalling through melanocortin receptors. Expression of Agouti is normally limited to the skin, but rare alleles from which Agouti is expressed ubiquitously, such as lethal yellow, have pleiotropic effects that include a yellow coat, obesity, increased linear growth, and immune defects. The mahogany (mg) mutation suppresses the effects of lethal yellow on pigmentation and body weight, and results of our previous genetic studies place mg downstream of transcription of Agouti but upstream of melanocortin receptors. Here we use positional cloning to identify a candidate gene for mahogany, Mgca. The predicted protein encoded by Mgca is a 1,428-amino-acid, single-transmembrane-domain protein that is expressed in many tissues, including pigment cells and the hypothalamus. The extracellular domain of the Mgca protein is the orthologue of human attractin, a circulating molecule produced by activated T cells that has been implicated in immune-cell interactions. These observations provide new insight into the regulation of energy metabolism and indicate a molecular basis for crosstalk between melanocortin-receptor signalling and immune function.
View details for Web of Science ID 000079135200045
View details for PubMedID 10086356
Characterization of the molecular pathways controlling differentiation and proliferation in mammalian hair follicles is central to our understanding of the regulation of normal hair growth, the basis of hereditary hair loss diseases, and the origin of follicle-based tumors. We demonstrate that the proto-oncogene Wnt3, which encodes a secreted paracrine signaling molecule, is expressed in developing and mature hair follicles and that its overexpression in transgenic mouse skin causes a short-hair phenotype due to altered differentiation of hair shaft precursor cells, and cyclical balding resulting from hair shaft structural defects and associated with an abnormal profile of protein expression in the hair shaft. A putative effector molecule for WNT3 signaling, the cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled 2 (DVL2), is normally present at high levels in a subset of cells in the outer root sheath and in precursor cells of the hair shaft cortex and cuticle which lie immediately adjacent to Wnt3-expressing cells. Overexpression of Dvl2 in the outer root sheath mimics the short-hair phenotype produced by overexpression of Wnt3, supporting the hypothesis that Wnt3 and Dvl2 have the potential to act in the same pathway in the regulation of hair growth. These experiments demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for WNT signaling in the control of hair growth and structure, as well as presenting the first example of a mammalian phenotype resulting from overexpression of a Dvl gene and providing an accessible in vivo system for analysis of mammalian WNT signaling pathways.
View details for Web of Science ID 000079085400011
View details for PubMedID 10049570
Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) are paracrine-signaling molecules that normally regulate pigmentation and body weight, respectively. These proteins antagonize the effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and other melanocortins, and several alternatives have been proposed to explain their biochemical mechanisms of action. We have used a sensitive bioassay based on Xenopus melanophores to characterize pharmacologic properties of recombinant Agouti protein, and have directly measured its cell-surface binding to mammalian cells by use of an epitope-tagged form (HA-Agouti) that retains biologic activity. In melanophores, Agouti protein has no effect in the absence of alpha-MSH, but its action cannot be explained solely by inhibition of alpha-MSH binding. In 293T cells, expression of the Mc1r confers a specific, high-affinity binding site for HA-Agouti. Binding is inhibited by alpha-MSH, or by Agrp, which indicates that alpha-MSH and Agouti protein bind in a mutually exclusive way to the Mc1r, and that the similarity between Agouti protein and Agrp includes their binding sites. The effects of Agouti and the Mc1r in vivo have been examined in a sensitized background provided by the chinchilla (Tyrc-ch) mutation, which uncovers a phenotypic difference between overexpression of Agouti in lethal yellow (Ay/a) mice and loss of Mc1r function in recessive yellow (Mc1re/Mc1re) mice. Double and triple mutant studies indicate that a functional Mc1r is required for the pigmentary effects of Agouti, and suggest that Agouti protein can act as an agonist of the Mc1r in a way that differs from alpha-MSH stimulation. These results resolve questions regarding the biochemical mechanism of Agouti protein action, and provide evidence of a novel signaling mechanism whereby alpha-MSH and Agouti protein or Agrp function as independent ligands that inhibit each other's binding and transduce opposite signals through a single receptor.
View details for Web of Science ID 000071942300004
View details for PubMedID 9450927
The mouse mutations mahogany (mg) and mahoganoid (md) are negative modifiers of the Agouti coat color gene, which encodes a paracrine signaling molecule that induces a swithc in melanin synthesis from eumelanin to pheomelanin. Animals mutant for md or mg synthesize very little or no pheomelanin depending on Agouti gene background. The Agouti protein is normally expressed in the skin and acts as an antagonist of the melanocyte receptor for alpha-MSH (Mc1r); however, ectopic expression of Agouti causes obesity, possibly by antagonizing melanocortin receptors expressed in the brain. To investigate where md and mg lie in a genetic pathway with regard to Agouti and Mc1r signaling, we determined the effects of these mutations in animals that carried either a loss-of-function Mc1r mutation (recessive yellow, Mc1re) or a gain-of-function Agouti mutation (lethal yellow, Ay). We found that the Mc1re mutation suppressed the effects of md and mg, but that md and mg suppressed the effects of Ay on both coat color and obesity. Plasma levels of alpha-MSH and of ACTH were unaffected by md or mg. These results suggest that md and mg interfere directly with Agouti signaling, possibly at the level of protein production or receptor regulation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XM83300017
View details for PubMedID 9258683
Previous studies have suggested that angiotensin II (Ang II) modulates cardiac contractility, rhythm, metabolism, and structure. However, it is unclear whether the cardiac effects are due to direct actions of Ang II on the myocardium or if they are due to secondary effects mediated through the hemodynamic actions of Ang II. In this study, we used the alpha-myosin heavy chain (alphaMHC) promoter to generate transgenic mice overexpressing angiotensin II type 1 (AT1a) receptor selectively in cardiac myocytes. The specificity of transgene expression in the transgenic offspring was confirmed by radioligand binding studies and reverse transcription-PCR. The offspring displayed massive atrial enlargement with myocyte hyperplasia at birth, developed significant bradycardia with heart block, and died within the first weeks after birth. Thus, direct activation of AT1 receptor signaling in cardiac myocytes in vivo is sufficient to induce cardiac myocyte growth and alter electrical conduction.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XD84400077
View details for PubMedID 9177228
Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) is a key activator of mitochondrial transcription in mammals. It also has a role in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, since transcription generates an RNA primer necessary for initiation of mtDNA replication. In the mouse, testis-specific mtTFA transcripts encode a protein isoform that is imported to the nucleus rather than into mitochondria of spermatocytes and elongating spermatids. We now report molecular characterization of human mtTFA (h-mtTFA) expression in somatic tissues and male germ cells. Similarly to the mouse, analysis of cDNAs and Northern blots identified abundant testis-specific transcript isoforms generated by use of alternate transcription initiation sites. However, unlike the mouse, none of the testis-specific transcripts predicts a nuclear protein isoform, and Western blot analysis identified only the mitochondrial form of h-mtTFA in human testis. Immunohistochemistry and in situ were used to compare the distribution of mtTFA protein, testis-specific mtTFA transcripts, mtDNA and mtRNA in sections of human testis. Our results show that the mtTFA protein and mtDNA exhibit parallel gradients with high levels in undifferentiated male germ cells and low levels or an absence in different male germ cells. Testis-specific transcripts exhibit the opposite pattern, suggesting that in both humans and mice, these testis-specific mtTFA transcripts down-regulate mtTFA protein levels in mammalian mitochondria. Our findings demonstrate that mtTFA does not have a critical role in the nucleus, suggest a mechanism for reducing mtDNA copy number during spermatogenesis and have implications for the understanding of maternal transmission of mtDNA.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WH78900005
View details for PubMedID 9063738
Manipulations of the murine genome that alter cardiovascular function have created the need for methods to study cardiovascular physiology in genetically altered animals in vivo. We adapted chronic physiological measurement techniques to the nonanesthetized, nonrestrained murine model, established strain-specific cardiovascular and metabolic norms, and evaluated responses to anesthesia, exercise, and adrenergic stimulation. Anesthesia resulted in alterations in heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and O2 consumption (V(O2)) and CO2 production (V(CO2)) for up to 6 h postoperatively. There were significant interstrain differences in resting values of HR and BP Graded treadmill exercise resulted in linear increases in HR, V(O2), V(CO2), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) similar to those seen in larger species. Response to beta-adrenergic stimulation showed a classic sigmoidal dose-response curve; however, there was very little tachycardiac response to vagal blockade, indicating low resting vagal tone. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing chronic cardiovascular measurements in nonanesthetized mice and stresses the importance of allowing for anesthetic recovery and strain variability. Murine cardiovascular responses to exercise can be reliably measured and are qualitatively similar to those in humans.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WJ80900057
View details for PubMedID 9124413
Ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) is an X-linked human genetic disorder that affects retinal pigment cells and, to a lesser degree, neural crest-derived melanocytes. The OA1 gene is located close to the pseudoautosomal region and predicts a novel protein whose function is unknown. However, histologic studies of affected patients have suggested a potential role in melanosome biogenesis. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the mouse homolog of the human OA1 gene, termed Moa1. Two Moa1 isoforms were isolated from a melanoma cDNA library and predicted to encode proteins of 405 and 249 amino acids with six and two transmembrane-spanning regions, respectively. Interspecific backcross mapping yielded a map order and distances (cM) of cen-Moa1-3.1 +/- 1.8-Piga-2.1 +/- 1.5-Amel, indicating that Moa1 is located much farther away from the pseudoautosomal region than its human homolog. In adult tissues, both Moa1 isoforms were detected in the eye by Northern hybridization. In neonatal tissues, Moa1 RNA was detected in both skin and eyes by Northern hybridization and was not affected by the absence of pigment in mice carrying the albino mutation, or by the type of pigment synthesized, i.e., eumelanin vs pheomelanin, in mice carrying the black-and-tan mutation. Expression of Moa1 RNA was not detected in embryonic tissues by Northern analysis or by in situ hybridization despite the active synthesis of ocular pigment by E16.5. These results provide insight into the structure and possible function of the OA1 protein and suggest a more complex relationship between the human and mouse X chromosomes than was previously thought to exist.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VN66700010
View details for PubMedID 8921399
The mouse agouti protein is a paracrine signaling molecule that causes yellow pigment synthesis. A pale ventral coloration distinguishes the light-bellied agouti (AW) from the agouti (A) allele, and is caused by expression of ventral-specific mRNA isoforms with a unique 5' untranslated exon. Molecular cloning demonstrates this ventral-specific exon lies within a 3.1-kb element that is duplicated in the opposite orientation 15-kb upstream to produce an interrupted palindrome and that similarity between the duplicated elements has been maintained by gene conversion. Orientation of the palindrome is reversed in A compared to AW, which suggests that mutation from one allele to the other is caused by intrachromosomal homologous recombination mediated by sequences within the duplicated elements. Analysis of 15 inbred strains of laboratory and wild-derived mice with Southern hybridization probes and closely linked microsatellite markers suggests six haplotype groups: one typical for most strains that carry AW (129/SvJ, LP/J, CE/J, CAST/Ei), one typical for most strains that carry A (Balb/cJ, CBA/J, FVB/N, PERA/Rk, RBB/Dn); and four that are atypical (MOLC/Rk, MOLG/Dn, PERA/Ei, PERC/Ei, SPRET/Ei, RBA/Dn). Our results suggest a model for molecular evolution of the agouti locus in which homologous recombination can produce a reversible switch in allelic identity.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VE25200025
View details for PubMedID 8878692
alpha2-Adrenergic receptors (alpha2ARs) are essential components of the neural circuitry regulating cardiovascular function. The role of specific alpha2AR subtypes (alpha2a, alpha2b, and alpha2c) was characterized with hemodynamic measurements obtained from strains of genetically engineered mice deficient in either alpha2b or alpha2c receptors. Stimulation of alpha2b receptors in vascular smooth muscle produced hypertension and counteracted the clinically beneficial hypotensive effect of stimulating alpha2a receptors in the central nervous system. There were no hemodynamic effects produced by disruption of the alpha2c subtype. These results provide evidence for the clinical efficacy of more subtype-selective alpha2AR drugs.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VB42900045
View details for PubMedID 8670422
Genes that control mammalian pigmentation interact with each other in intricate networks that have been studied for decades using mouse coat color mutations. Molecular isolation of the affected genes and the ability to study their effects in a defined genetic background have led to surprising new insights into the potential interaction between tyrosine kinase and G-protein-coupled signaling pathways. Recent developments show that homologous genes in humans are responsible not only for rare diseases, such as albinism and piebaldism, but also for common phenotypic variations, such as red hair and fair skin.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VA71300008
View details for PubMedID 8783939
At least three distinct beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) subtypes exist in mammals. These receptors modulate a wide variety of processes, from development and behavior, to cardiac function, metabolism, and smooth muscle tone. To understand the roles that individual beta-AR subtypes play in these processes, we have used the technique of gene targeting to create homozygous beta 1-AR null mutants (beta 1-AR -/-) in mice. The majority of beta 1-AR -/- mice die prenatally, and the penetrance of lethality shows strain dependence. Beta l-AR -/- mice that do survive to adulthood appear normal, but lack the chronotropic and inotropic responses seen in wild-type mice when beta-AR agonists such as isoproterenol are administered. Moreover, this lack of responsiveness is accompanied by markedly reduced stimulation of adenylate cyclase in cardiac membranes from beta 1-AR -/- mice. These findings occur despite persistent cardiac beta 2-AR expression, demonstrating the importance of beta 1-ARs for proper mouse development and cardiac function, while highlighting functional differences between beta-AR subtypes.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UW79200098
View details for PubMedID 8693001
Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) is a key regulator of mammalian mitochondrial DNA transcription. We report here that a testis-specific isoform of mouse mtTFA lacks the mitochondrial targeting sequence and is present in the nucleus of spermatocytes and elongating spermatids, thus representing the first reported mammalian gene encoding protein isoforms targeted for the mitochondria or the nucleus. The presence of the mitochondrial transcriptional activator in the nucleus raises the possibility of a role for this protein in both genetic systems. Mutations in the nuclear mtTFA gene may therefore exhibit phenotypic consequences due to altered function in either or both genetic compartments.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UU28300017
View details for PubMedID 8673128
Angiotensin II is a potent regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis and binds to two different G-protein-coupled receptors. While the type 1 receptor (AT1) mediates the cardiovascular actions of angiotensin II, the function of the recently cloned type 2 receptor (AT2) remains unknown. We have cloned the mouse AT2 receptor gene (Agtr2) and determined its map position by linkage analysis using an interspecific backcross (C57BL/6J x Mus spretus).Agtr2 is located on the proximal mouse X chromosome between DXMit85 and DXMit49, in a region of conserved synteny with a part of the human X chromosome implicated in inherited forms of premature ovarian failure. The mapping of Agtr2 may expand a region of conserved synteny with human Xq26 that includes Hprt.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995TG44700033
View details for PubMedID 8586443
Angiotensin II, a potent regulator of blood pressure and of water and electrolyte balance, binds to two different G-protein-coupled receptors. The type-1 receptor (AT1) mediates the vasopressive and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II, but the function of the type-2 receptor (AT2) is unknown, although it is expressed in both adult and embryonic life. To address this question, we have generated mice lacking the gene encoding the AT2 receptor. Mutant mice develop normally, but have an impaired drinking response to water deprivation as well as a reduction in spontaneous movements. Their baseline blood pressure is normal, but they show an increased vasopressor response to injection of angiotensin II. Thus, although the AT2 receptor is not required for embryonic development, it plays a role in the central nervous system and cardiovascular functions that are mediated by the renin-angiotensin system.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995TB46900060
View details for PubMedID 7477266
Expression of the agouti gene from two different promoters, one active at the midpoint of the hair cycle and the other specific for the ventrum, is responsible for generating a range of mammalian pigmentation patterns. We demonstrate that in postnatal mice transcripts from both promoters are confined to the dermal papilla of hair follicles, as predicted by classical transplantation experiments. Transcripts from the hair cycle promoter are detected in the embryonic whisker plate but not in other regions of the body before birth, whereas ventral-specific transcripts are detected in the ventral trunk of the embryo as well as ventral whisker plate. To investigate further the embryonic origins of adult pigmentation patterns, we carried out a detailed analysis of agouti expression in the embryo. The ventral-specific agouti isoform is first expressed at E10.5 in neural crest-derived ventral cells of the second branchial arch, in anterior regions of the forelimb buds and in a narrow stripe of ventral mesenchyme. By E14.5 a continuous layer of expression is observed in the upper cells of the dermis, including cells of the developing dermal papillae, and covering the entire ventral surface of the head and trunk and dorsal surfaces of the distal forelimb and hindlimb. This expression pattern reflects the domain of yellow coloration evident in adult animals and suggests that the agouti gene is regulated in part by factors responsible for establishing differences between the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body during embryogenesis. To test the hypothesis that agouti is a paracrine signaling molecule that can influence pigment production by hair follicle melanocytes when expressed by either dermis or epidermis, as suggested by recombination and transplantation experiments, we created transgenic animals in which agouti is expressed in basal cells of the epidermis. These animals display stripes of yellow hairs corresponding to regions of epidermal agouti expression, confirming that agouti signals melanocytes to synthesize yellow pigment and providing direct evidence that it functions in a paracrine manner with a restricted radius of action.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995RZ75600010
View details for PubMedID 7588057
alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors (alpha 2-ARs) regulate a wide range of physiological functions and are targets for clinically important antihypertensive and anesthetic agents. Three genes encoding alpha 2-AR subtypes have been cloned in humans and mice, but the physiological significance of each subtype has not been completely characterized. The available agonist and antagonist compounds are not sufficiently subtype selective to allow the unambiguous dissection of these receptors in vivo. As an alternative approach, we have used gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to disrupt the Adra2c gene, which encodes the alpha 2c-AR subtype in mice. Adra2c-/Adra2c- animals do not express a functional alpha 2c-AR transcript, as detected by Northern blotting or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. In addition, these mice have markedly reduced [3H]rauwolscine binding in their caudate putamen and in other brain regions normally expressing Adra2c binding sites. Adra2c-/Adra2c- mice, however, are viable and fertile and appear grossly normal. Expression levels of Adra2a and Adra2b mRNA in brain and kidney are not altered by the Adra2c knockout. These data suggest that up-regulation of Adra2a or Adra2b does not compensate for the Adra2c deficiency and that the receptor encoded by Adra2c is not required for normal mouse development or for survival in a laboratory environment.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995RK03200007
View details for PubMedID 7623774
The mouse agouti coat color gene encodes a novel paracrine signaling molecule whose pulsatile expression produces a characteristic pattern of banded pigment in individual hairs. Several spontaneous agouti alleles produce adult-onset obesity and diabetes, and have provided important single-gene animal models for alterations in energy metabolism. Utilizing linkage groups conserved between mice and humans, we have cloned the human homolog of the mouse agouti gene from a human chromosome 20 yeast artificial chromosome known to contain S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase (AHCY). The human agouti gene, named Agouti Signaling Protein (ASP), encodes a 132 amino acid protein, the mRNA for which is expressed in testis, ovary, and heart, and at lower levels in liver, kidney, and foreskin. As predicted by the interactions of mouse agouti with the extension gene (which encodes the melanocyte receptor for alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone [alpha-MSH]), expression of ASP in transgenic mice produces a yellow coat, and expression of ASP in cell culture blocks the alpha-MSH-stimulated accumulation of cAMP in mouse melanoma cells. The localization of ASP relative to other loci on chromosome 20 excludes it as a candidate for the MODY1 locus, a gene responsible for one form of early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or maturity-onset diabetes of the young. The expression of ASP in human tissues suggests a function for agouti homologs in species that do not exhibit the characteristic phenotype of banded hairs.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995QH63400012
View details for PubMedID 7757071
The mouse kreisler (kr) mutation causes segmentation abnormalities in the caudal hindbrain and defective inner ear development. Based on an inversion discovered in the original kr allele, we selected a candidate cDNA highly expressed in the developing caudal hindbrain. This cDNA encodes a basic domain-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor and was confirmed to represent the kr gene by analysis of a second kr allele, generated by chemical mutagenesis, in which a serine is substituted for an asparagine residue conserved in the DNA-binding domain of all known bZIP family members. The identity, expression, and mutant phenotype of kr indicate an early role in axial patterning and provide insights into the molecular and embryologic mechanisms that govern hindbrain and otic development.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994PY08600012
View details for PubMedID 8001130
Several dominant mutations of the mouse agouti coat colour gene have pleiotropic effects that include obesity and a yellow coat. The Ay allele is caused by a large deletion that affects the expression of several contiguous genes. We show that three other obesity-associated agouti mutations, Aiy, Asy and Avy, are due to different molecular alterations that result in ubiquitous expression of a chimaeric RNA that encodes a normal agouti protein. The Aiy and Avy alleles are caused by insertion of an intracisternal A particle element 1 kb or 100 kb, respectively, upstream of agouti coding sequences. These results provide a model for other genes that show allele-specific imprinting, and demonstrate that molecular mechanisms typically responsible for activation of proto-oncogenes can also lead to other disease phenotypes.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994PE15700016
View details for PubMedID 7987393
The agouti coat color gene encodes a paracrine signaling molecule that controls the production of yellow and black pigment by melanocytes within hair follicles. Some agouti alleles affect the dorsum and ventrum independently, which has provided the basis for speculation that agouti gene action in different regions of the body is controlled by distinct genetic loci that are closely linked. Using a combination of cDNA cloning and RNA expression studies, we find that alternative isoforms of agouti mRNA contain different noncoding first exons located 100 kb apart, whose patterns of expression indicate independent control by regulatory elements that are either ventral specific or hair cycle specific. These results demonstrate that the apparent genetic complexity of the agouti locus is explained by the existence of multiple regulatory elements exerting control over a single coding sequence and provide a conceptual basis for understanding differences in dorsal and ventral hair coloration in many mammalian species. The ventral-specific agouti isoform represents an example of a transcript whose expression is restricted to ventral skin and provide an approach to investigate the mechanisms by which dorsal-ventral differences in gene expression are established and maintained.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NR27500093
View details for PubMedID 8202545
Heterozygosity for the mouse lethal yellow (Ay) mutation leads to obesity, increased tumor susceptibility and increased activity of the agouti coat color gene; homozygosity for Ay results in embryonic death around the time of implantation. Although these pleiotropic effects have not been separated by recombination, previous studies have suggested that the dominant and recessive effects result from distinct genetic lesions. Here we use a combination of genomic and cDNA cloning experiments to demonstrate that the Ay mutation is caused by a 120 kb deletion which lies centromere-proximal to the agouti coat color gene. The deletion removes coding but not 5' untranslated sequences for a ubiquitously expressed gene predicted to encode a protein similar in sequence to an RNA-binding protein, which we named Merc, for maternally expressed hnRNP C-related gene, but have renamed Raly, since the gene is nearly identical to one reported recently by Michaud et al. (Gene Dev. 7, 1203-1213, 1993). The Ay deletion results in the splicing of Merc/Raly 5' untranslated sequences to agouti protein-coding sequences, which suggests that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein by the Ay fusion RNA is responsible for the pleiotropic effects associated with heterozygosity for Ay. We find that Merc/Raly RNA is present in the unfertilized egg and is also transcribed in preimplantation embryos. Using a PCR-based assay to determine the genotype of individual embryos from an Ay/a x Ay/a intercross, we show that, in the absence of zygotic Merc/Raly expression, Ay/Ay embryos develop to the blastocyst stage, but do not hatch from the zona pellucida or form trophoblastic outgrowths. Injection of a Merc/Raly antisense oligonucleotide into non-mutant embryos blocks development prior to the blastocyst stage, and can be rescued by coinjection of a Merc/Raly transgene. These results suggest that maternal expression of Merc/Raly plays an important role in preimplantation development and that its deletion of is sufficient to explain Ay-associated embryonic lethality.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NT55500031
View details for PubMedID 8050375
The lethal nonagouti (a(x)) mutation is a hypomorphic allele of the agouti coat color locus which, when homozygous, also leads to embryonic death around the time of implantation. To understand the molecular basis of these phenotypes, we identified and cloned a deletion breakpoint junction present in the ax chromosome. Long range restriction mapping demonstrated a simple deletion of approximately 100 kb, which does not affect agouti coding sequences, but begins only 4 kb 3' of the last exon, and thus may affect coat color by removing an agouti 3' enhancer. The Ahcy gene, which codes for the enzyme S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHase), is contained within a 20 kb region within the a(x) deletion. SAHase RNA and protein were detectable in early blastocysts and in embryonic stem cells, respectively, and analysis of embryos derived from an a(x)/a x a(x)/a embryo intercross indicated that a(x)/a embryos die between the late blastocyst and early implantation stages. Treatment of cultured embryos with an SAHase inhibitor, 3-deazaaristeromycin, or with metabolites that can result in elevated levels of cellular SAH, resulted in an inhibition of inner cell mass development, suggesting that loss of SAHase activity in a(x)/a(x) embryos is sufficient to explain their death around the time of implantation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NH08200006
View details for PubMedID 8168479
In a previous survey of endogenous proviruses among inbred mouse strains, the Xmv-10 provirus was found only in strains that carried the non-agouti (a) mutation (Frankel et al. J. Virol. 63: 1763-1774, 1989). To determine whether insertion of Xmv-10 caused the a mutation, we cloned a portion of Xmv-10 and its insertion site. Using a fragment of flanking cellular DNA as a Southern hybridization probe, we found that the Xmv-10 provirus was still present in revertant alleles of a to a(t) or AW. A restriction fragment length variant (RFLV) in cellular DNA at the Xmv-10 insertion site was found to be correlated with the presence or absence of the provirus among inbred strains of laboratory mice regardless of their agouti allele. This correlation did not extend to wild mice, however, in which none of the samples contained Xmv-10, yet one, Mus domesticus poschiavinus, contained the insertion site RFLV correlated with Xmv-10 in laboratory mice. Analysis of an intersubspecific backcross with RFLVs at the insertion sites of Xmv-10 and Emv-15 (an endogenous provirus associated with Ay) revealed the following genetic map information: cen-A-0.31 +/- 0.31 cM-Emv-15-0.62 +/- 0.27 cM-Xmv-10-tel. Haplotype analysis of inbred strains in which a was not associated with Xmv-10 and in which Ay was not associated with Emv-15 demonstrated that these "exceptions" were explained most simply by a single recombination that disturbed the linkage relationships evident in most inbred strains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
View details for Web of Science ID A1994MQ37400001
View details for PubMedID 8111126
alpha-2 adrenergic receptors can be subdivided into three related subtypes which are conserved in humans, rats, and mice. In the mouse, these receptors are encoded by three genes (Adra-2a, Adra-2b, Adra-2c). To gain insight into the evolution of this multigene family and to investigate whether these genes are candidates for previously identified mouse mutations, we have determined the map positions of the Adra-2b and Adra-2c genes. The Adra-2a gene has been previously mapped to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 19 (Oakey et al. Genomics 10, 338-344, 1991). Using segregation among recombinant inbred strains of a single-stranded conformational polymorphism specific for alleles of Adra-2b and Adra-2c, we present map positions for these genes on mouse Chrs 2 and 5, respectively. In the case of Adra-2b, these results have been confirmed by an analysis of somatic cell hybrids. In addition, we generate AKXD recombinant inbred strain distribution patterns for 11 previously defined SSLP microsatellite markers, further refining the haplotype maps for these chromosomes. Finally, several candidate mouse mutations that map close to Adra-2b and Adra-2c are discussed.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993MF57400005
View details for PubMedID 8281014
Expression of the homeobox fusion gene E2A-PBX1 under control of the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer efficiently induced malignancies in transgenic mice. All animals died before 5 months of age with lymphomas that demonstrated phenotypes consistent with transitional intermediate thymocytes (CD4+/CD8+/CD3med). E2A-PBX1 also markedly altered lymphoid development in pretumorous animals, reducing the number of thymocytes and bone marrow B lineage progenitors to 20% of normal levels. In spite of the observed reductions in lymphoid cells, premalignant animals contained significantly increased numbers of cycling thymocytes, but a higher proportion was also undergoing apoptosis, suggesting that increased cell death resulted in the marked lymphopenias. These data indicate that the chimeric homeodomain protein E2A-PBX1 paradoxically induces both proliferation and apoptosis in lymphoid cells, suggesting an in vivo association between nuclear oncogene-induced cell cycle progression and programed cell death.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993LX29200009
View details for PubMedID 8104101
The mouse agouti gene controls the deposition of yellow and black pigment in developing hairs. Several dominant alleles, including lethal yellow (Ay), result in the exclusive production of yellow pigment and have pleiotropic effects that include obesity and increased tumor susceptibility. In an interspecific backcross, we established genetic limits for the agouti gene and found that the Ay and the lethal non-agouti (ax) allele were not separated from a previously identified probe at the breakpoint of the Is1GsO chromosomal rearrangement. Using the Is1GsO probe, we isolated the agouti gene, and find that it has the potential to code for a secreted protein expressed in hair follicles and the epidermis, and that the level of expression correlates with the synthesis of yellow pigment. In the Ay mutation, there is a chromosomal rearrangement that results in the production of a chimeric RNA expressed in nearly every tissue of the body. The 5' portion of this chimeric RNA contains highly expressed novel 5' sequences, but the 3' portion retains the protein-coding potential of the nonmutant allele. We speculate that dominant pleiotropic effects of Ay are caused by ectopic activation of a signaling pathway similar to that used during normal hair growth.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993KR21800011
View details for PubMedID 8449404
We have examined the subcellular distribution of three subtypes of adrenergic receptor by immunocytochemical localization of wild-type and epitope-tagged proteins expressed in Cos-7 and K293 cells. Two subtypes (beta 2 and M alpha 2-10H) are localized in the plasma membrane at steady state in untreated cells, while another subtype (M alpha 2-4H) is found both in the plasma membrane and in a population of intracellular vesicles. Within 15 min following the addition of adrenergic agonists, beta 2 and M alpha 2-10H receptors are differentially sorted; beta 2 receptors are selectively internalized to intracellular vesicles, which are distinct from those containing M alpha 2-4H receptors, while M alpha 2-10H receptors remain in the plasma membrane. Subtype-specific sorting suggests a new class of functional properties that may differentiate the signaling and regulation of homologous G protein-coupled receptors.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993KG07700003
View details for PubMedID 7678260
Three subtypes of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors have been identified in the human and rat. The subtype located on human chromosome 2 (alpha 2-C2) is unique in that it is expressed mainly in the peripheral tissues and lacks sites for N-linked glycosylation. We isolated the gene encoding the mouse homolog of the human alpha 2-C2 adrenergic receptor (M alpha 2-2H). The deduced amino acid sequence of the M alpha 2-2H shows 82% and 96% identity to the human alpha 2-C2 and the rat RNG alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, respectively. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the M alpha 2-2H was encoded by a single copy gene and was distinct from the mouse homologs of the alpha 2-C4 and alpha 2-C10 adrenergic receptors. When expressed in COS-7 cells, the M alpha 2-2H exhibited a pharmacological profile similar to the human alpha 2-C2 and rat RNG alpha 2 receptors.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JJ80300014
View details for PubMedID 1354956
TAPA-1 is a member of a new family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins which may be involved in regulation of cell growth and/or cell signalling. We have examined the temporal pattern of TAPA-1 RNA expression during mouse development. Using a sensitive reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction assay, we show that TAPA-1 RNA is present in oocytes, fertilized eggs and cleavage stage embryos.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JJ80300003
View details for PubMedID 1380797
Molecular cloning and ligand binding studies have shown the alpha 2 class of adrenergic receptor (alpha 2-AR) to be a family of at least three related subtypes in humans. These studies have not, however, identified distinct subtype-specific functions for these receptors in vivo. It should be possible to extend the analysis of alpha 2-AR subtype function to the animal level through the use of experimental mammalian embryology in mice. To begin this process, we have isolated two mouse genomic clones encoding alpha 2-AR subtypes and expressed these genes in COS-7 cells for binding studies. Sequence homology and ligand binding data allow the assignment of one clone (M alpha 2-4H) as the mouse homolog of the human alpha 2-C4 subtype. The other clone (M alpha 2-10H) closely resembles the human alpha 2-C10 subtype in sequence but binds with significantly lower affinity to yohimbine and rauwolscine, members of a distinct class of bulky alpha 2-selective antagonists commonly used to evaluate alpha 2-AR function in vivo. To define the domain(s) responsible for this unusual binding property, we constructed a series of M alpha 2-10H/human alpha 2-C10 chimeric receptors. Analysis of these receptors identified a conservative Cys201 to Ser201 change in the fifth transmembrane domain of M alpha 2-10H as being responsible for the low affinity of the mouse receptor for yohimbine.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JE03200004
View details for PubMedID 1353249
The region surrounding the agouti coat color locus on mouse Chromosome 2 contains several genes required for peri-implantation development, limb morphogenesis, and segmentation of the nervous system. We have applied radiation hybrid mapping, a somatic cell genetic technique for constructing long-range maps of mammalian chromosomes, to eight molecular markers in this region. Using a mathematical model to estimate the frequency of radiation-induced breakage, we have constructed a map that spans approximately 20 recombination units and 475 centirays8000. The predicted order of markers, Prn-p-Pygb-Emv-13-Psp-Xmv-10-Emv-15-Src-Ada, is consistent with a previously derived multipoint meiotic map for six of the eight markers and suggests that Xmv-10 may lie relatively close to one or more of the agouti recessive lethal mutations. The resolution of our map is approximately 40-fold higher than the meiotic map, but the median retention frequency of mouse DNA in hybrid cells, 0.12, is 4-fold lower than similar experiments with human chromosomes. From one of the radiation hybrid lines that contained a minimum amount of mouse DNA, 25 independent cosmids were isolated with a mouse-specific hybridization probe. Single-copy fragments from two of these cosmids were shown to originate from mouse Chromosome 2, and the meiotic map position of one was found to be within 10 recombination units of the region of interest. Our results indicate more precise map positions for Pygb and Xmv-10, demonstrate that radiation hybrid mapping can provide high-resolution map information for the mouse genome, and establish a new method for isolating large fragments of DNA from a specific subchromosomal region.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992HY38800034
View details for PubMedID 1639401
Mutations that affect the balance between the synthesis of eumelanin and pheomelanin provide a powerful set of tools with which to understand general aspects of cell signaling. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that pheomelanin synthesis is triggered by the ability of Agouti protein to inhibit signaling through the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r). In a bioassay based on the Xenopus Mc1r, Agouti protein has two effects, competitive inhibition of receptor occupancy by alpha-MSH and down-regulation of receptor signaling, which are mediated separately by domains in the amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of Agouti protein, respectively. Recently, we have used the genetics of pigmentation as an in vivo system to screen for and analyze other mutations in the Agouti-melanocortin pathway. The pigmentary effects of Agouti are suppressed by the previously existing coat-color mutations mahogany (mg), mahoganoid (md), and Umbrous (U). Double mutant studies, with animals deficient for the Mc1r or those which carry Ay, indicate that mg and md are genetically upstream of the Mc1r, and can suppress the effects of Ay on both pigmentation and body weight. Positional cloning has recently identified the gene mutated in mahogany as a single transmembrane-spanning protein whose ectodomain is orthologous to human Attractin (Atrn).
View details for Web of Science ID 000089714000009
View details for PubMedID 11041357
Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) are paracrine signaling molecules that act by antagonizing the effects of melanocortins, and several alternatives have been proposed to explain their mechanisms of action. Genetic crosses in a sensitized background uncover a phenotypic difference between overexpression of Agouti and loss of Mc1r function, demonstrate that a functional Mc1r is required for the pigmentary effects of Agouti, and suggest that Agouti protein can act as an agonist of the Mc1r in a way that differs from alpha-MSH stimulation. In vitro, Agouti protein inhibits melanocortin action by two mechanisms: competitive antagonism that depends on the carboxyterminus of the protein, and downregulation of melanocortin receptor signaling that depends on the aminoterminus. Our findings provide evidence of a novel signaling mechanism whereby alpha-MSH and Agouti protein function as independent ligands that inhibit each other's binding and transduce opposite signals through a single receptor.
View details for Web of Science ID 000084366500011
View details for PubMedID 10816647