Honors & Awards
Dean's Fellowship, Stanford University School of Medicine (2010)
Bryan Smith, Eliver Ghosn. "United States Patent USSN 14/020,794 Carbon Nanotubes for Imaging and Drug Delivery", Stanford
In cancer imaging, nanoparticle biodistribution is typically visualized in living subjects using 'bulk' imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography and whole-body fluorescence. Accordingly, nanoparticle influx is observed only macroscopically, and the mechanisms by which they target cancer remain elusive. Nanoparticles are assumed to accumulate via several targeting mechanisms, particularly extravasation (leakage into tumour). Here, we show that, in addition to conventional nanoparticle-uptake mechanisms, single-walled carbon nanotubes are almost exclusively taken up by a single immune cell subset, Ly-6C(hi) monocytes (almost 100% uptake in Ly-6C(hi) monocytes, below 3% in all other circulating cells), and delivered to the tumour in mice. We also demonstrate that a targeting ligand (RGD) conjugated to nanotubes significantly enhances the number of single-walled carbon nanotube-loaded monocytes reaching the tumour (P < 0.001, day 7 post-injection). The remarkable selectivity of this tumour-targeting mechanism demonstrates an advanced immune-based delivery strategy for enhancing specific tumour delivery with substantial penetration.
View details for DOI 10.1038/NNANO.2014.62
View details for Web of Science ID 000336971600021
View details for PubMedID 24727688
Nowadays, one can hardly imagine biology and medicine without flow cytometry to measure CD4 T cell counts in HIV, follow bone marrow transplant patients, characterize leukemias, etc. Similarly, without flow cytometry, there would be a bleak future for stem cell deployment, HIV drug development and full characterization of the cells and cell interactions in the immune system. But while flow instruments have improved markedly, the development of automated tools for processing and analyzing flow data has lagged sorely behind. To address this deficit, we have developed automated flow analysis software technology, provisionally named AutoComp and AutoGate. AutoComp acquires sample and reagent labels from users or flow data files, and uses this information to complete the flow data compensation task. AutoGate replaces the manual subsetting capabilities provided by current analysis packages with newly defined statistical algorithms that automatically and accurately detect, display and delineate subsets in well-labeled and well-recognized formats (histograms, contour and dot plots). Users guide analyses by successively specifying axes (flow parameters) for data subset displays and selecting statistically defined subsets to be used for the next analysis round. Ultimately, this process generates analysis "trees" that can be applied to automatically guide analyses for similar samples. The first AutoComp/AutoGate version is currently in the hands of a small group of users at Stanford, Emory and NIH. When this "early adopter" phase is complete, the authors expect to distribute the software free of charge to .edu, .org and .gov users.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12026-014-8519-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000336333700007
?-Amyloid 42 (A?42) and ?-amyloid 40 (A?40), major components of senile plaque deposits in Alzheimer's disease, are considered neurotoxic and proinflammatory. In multiple sclerosis, A?42 is up-regulated in brain lesions and damaged axons. We found, unexpectedly, that treatment with either A?42 or A?40 peptides reduced motor paralysis and brain inflammation in four different models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with attenuation of motor paralysis, reduction of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), and suppression of lymphocyte activation. A?42 and A?40 treatments were effective in reducing ongoing paralysis induced with adoptive transfer of either autoreactive T helper 1 (T(H)1) or T(H)17 cells. High-dimensional 14-parameter flow cytometry of peripheral immune cell populations after in vivo A?42 and A?40 treatment revealed substantial modulations in the percentage of lymphoid and myeloid subsets during EAE. Major proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were reduced in the blood after A? peptide treatment. Protection conferred by A? treatment did not require its delivery to the brain: Adoptive transfer with lymphocytes from donors treated with A?42 attenuated EAE in wild-type recipient mice, and A? deposition in the brain was not detected in treated EAE mice by immunohistochemical analysis. In contrast to the improvement in EAE with A? treatment, EAE was worse in mice with genetic deletion of the amyloid precursor protein. Therefore, in the absence of A?, there is exacerbated clinical EAE disease progression. Because A?42 and A?40 ameliorate experimental autoimmune inflammation targeting the CNS, we might now consider its potential anti-inflammatory role in other neuropathological conditions.
View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3004145
View details for Web of Science ID 000307159500004
View details for PubMedID 22855462
In the companion article by Yang and colleagues [Yang Y, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 109, 10.1073/pnas.1121631109], we have shown that priming with glycolipid (FtL) from Francisella tularensis live-vaccine strain (i) induces FtL-specific B-1a to produce robust primary responses (IgM >IgG); (ii) establishes persistent long-term production of serum IgM and IgG anti-FtL at natural antibody levels; and (iii) elicits FtL-specific B-1a memory cells that arise in spleen but rapidly migrate to the peritoneal cavity, where they persist indefinitely but divide only rarely. Here, we show that FtL rechallenge alone induces these PerC B-1a memory cells to divide extensively and to express a unique activation signature. However, FtL rechallenge in the context of a Toll-like receptor 4 agonist-stimulated inflammatory response readily induces these memory cells to migrate to spleen and initiate production of dominant IgM anti-FtL secondary responses. Thus, studies here reveal unique mechanisms that govern B-1a memory development and expression, and introduce B-1a memory as an active participant in immune defenses. In addition, at a practical level, these studies suggest previously unexplored vaccination strategies for pathogen-associated antigens that target the B-1a repertoire.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1121627109
View details for Web of Science ID 000302294700058
View details for PubMedID 22421135
B-1a cells are primarily thought of as natural antibody-producing cells. However, we now show that appropriate antigenic stimulation induces IgM and IgG B-1a antibody responses and long-lived T-independent antigen-specific B-1a memory that differs markedly from canonical B-2 humoral immunity. Thus, we show here that in the absence of inflammation, priming with glycolipid (FtL) from Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain induces splenic FtL-specific B-1a to mount dominant IgM and activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent IgG anti-FtL responses that occur within 3-5 d of FtL priming and fade within 1 wk to natural antibody levels that persist indefinitely in the absence of secondary FtL immunization. Equally surprising, FtL priming elicits long-term FtL-specific B-1a memory cells (IgM>IgG) that migrate rapidly to the peritoneal cavity and persist there indefinitely, ready to respond to appropriately administrated secondary antigenic stimulation. Unlike B-2 responses, primary FtL-specific B-1a responses and establishment of persistent FtL-specific B-1a memory occur readily in the absence of adjuvants, IL-7, T cells, or germinal center support. However, in another marked departure from the mechanisms controlling B-2 memory responses, rechallenge with FtL in an inflammatory context is required to induce B-1a secondary antibody responses. These findings introduce previously unexplored vaccination strategies for pathogens that target the B-1a repertoire.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1121631109
View details for Web of Science ID 000302294700057
View details for PubMedID 22421134
The question of whether a single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gives rise to all of the B-cell subsets [B-1a, B-1b, B-2, and marginal zone (MZ) B cells] in the mouse has been discussed for many years without resolution. Studies here finally demonstrate that individual HSCs sorted from adult bone marrow and transferred to lethally irradiated recipients clearly give rise to B-2, MZ B, and B-1b, but does not detectably reconstitute B-1a cells. These findings place B-2, MZ, and B-1b in a single adult developmental lineage and place B-1a in a separate lineage derived from HSCs that are rare or missing in adults. We discuss these findings with respect to known developmental heterogeneity in other HSC-derived lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages, and how HSC developmental heterogeneity conforms to the layered model of the evolution of the immune system that we proposed some years ago. In addition, of importance to contemporary medicine, we consider the implications that HSC developmental heterogeneity may have for selecting HSC sources for human transplantation.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1121632109
View details for Web of Science ID 000302294700059
View details for PubMedID 22431624
Recent studies by Dorshkind, Yoder, and colleagues show that embryonic (E9) B-cell progenitors located in the yolk sac and intraembryonic hemogenic endothelium before the initiation of circulation give rise to B-1 and marginal zone B cells but do not give rise to B-2 cells. In studies here, we confirm and extend these findings by showing that distinct progenitors for B-1 and B-2 cells are present in the adult spleen. Furthermore, we show that the splenic B-cell progenitor population (lin(-)CD19(+)/B220(lo/-)/CD43(-)) that gives rise to B-1 cells is likely to be heterogeneous because, in some recipients, it also gives rise to B cells expressing the marginal zone phenotype (B220(hi)IgM(hi)IgD(lo)CD21(hi)) and to some (CD19(-)CD5(hi)) T cells. In addition to the well-known function differences between B-1 and B-2, our studies demonstrate that substantial developmental differences separate these B-cell lineages. Thus, consistent with the known dependence of B-2 development on IL-7, all B-2 progenitors express IL-7R. However, >30% of the B-1 progenitors do not express this marker, enabling the known IL-7 independent development of B-1 cells in IL-7(-/-) mice. In addition, marker expression on cells in the early stages of the B-2 development pathway (CD19(-)/c-Kit(lo/-)/Sca-1(lo/-)) in adult bone marrow distinguish it from the early stages of B-1 development (CD19(hi)/c-Kit(+)/Sca-1(+)), which occur constitutively in neonates. In adults, in vivo inflammatory stimulation (LPS) triggers B-1 progenitors in spleen to expand and initiate development along this B-1 developmental pathway.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1019764108
View details for Web of Science ID 000287377000049
View details for PubMedID 21282663
The peritoneal cavity (PerC) is a unique compartment within which a variety of immune cells reside, and from which macrophages (MØ) are commonly drawn for functional studies. Here we define two MØ subsets that coexist in PerC in adult mice. One, provisionally called the large peritoneal MØ (LPM), contains approximately 90% of the PerC MØ in unstimulated animals but disappears rapidly from PerC following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or thioglycolate stimulation. These cells express high levels of the canonical MØ surface markers, CD11b and F4/80. The second subset, referred to as small peritoneal MØ (SPM), expresses substantially lower levels of CD11b and F4/80 but expresses high levels of MHC-II, which is not expressed on LPM. SPM, which predominates in PerC after LPS or thioglycolate stimulation, does not derive from LPM. Instead, it derives from blood monocytes that rapidly enter the PerC after stimulation and differentiate to mature SPM within 2 to 4 d. Both subsets show clear phagocytic activity and both produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to LPS stimulation in vivo. However, their responses to LPS show key differences: in vitro, LPS stimulates LPM, but not SPM, to produce NO; in vivo, LPS stimulates both subsets to produce NO, albeit with different response patterns. These findings extend current models of MØ heterogeneity and shed new light on PerC MØ diversity, development, and function. Thus, they introduce a new context for interpreting (and reinterpreting) data from ex vivo studies with PerC MØ.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0915000107
View details for Web of Science ID 000274408100039
View details for PubMedID 20133793
Peritoneal cavity (PerC) B-1 cells have long been known to express CD11b, which is coexpressed with CD18 to form the Mac-1/CR3 complement receptor and adhesion molecule. However, although all PerC B-1 cells are commonly believed to express CD11b, we show here that nearly half of the cells in each of the PerC B-1 subsets (B-1a and B-1b) do not express this surface receptor. The CD11b(+) cells in each B-1 subset are larger and more granular and express higher levels of surface IgM than the CD11b(-) B-1 cells. In addition, the CD11b(+) B-1 cells initiate the formation of tightly associated doublets that are present at high frequency in adult PerC. Finally, and most importantly from a developmental standpoint, the CD11b(+) B-1 cells have a limited reconstitution capability: when sorted and transferred into congenic recipients, they reconstitute their own (CD11b(+)) B-1 subset but do not reconstitute the CD11b(-) B-1 subset. In contrast, CD11b(-) B-1 cells transferred under the same conditions efficiently replenish all components of the PerC B-1 population in appropriate proportions. During ontogeny, CD11b(-) B-1 cells appear before CD11b(+) B-1 cells. However, the clear phenotypic differences between the neonatal and adult CD11b B-1 subsets argue that although CD11b(-) B-1 give rise to CD11b(+) B-1 in both cases different forces may regulate this transition.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0712350105
View details for Web of Science ID 000254723700044
View details for PubMedID 18375763
B-1a cells reside in both the peritoneal cavity and the spleen. LPS stimulates splenic B-1a to differentiate to plasma cells producing natural IgM specific for microbial and self antigens. However, there are conflicting views as to whether the B-1a cells divide before this differentiation occurs, and hence how the resident B-1a population is maintained in the spleen. Studies here resolve this dispute in favor of both sides: we show that (some or all) B-1a cells resident in the spleen respond to LPS by differentiating to plasma cells immediately, without dividing; however, we also show that additional B-1a cells immigrate into the spleen after LPS stimulation and divide at least once before differentiating. Importantly, the studies we presently describe reveal the complex cell migration and differentiation events that collectively underlie the rapid production of natural antibodies in response to in vivo LPS stimulation. Thus, the studies present a different view of the roles that B-1a cells play in the early phases of the innate immune response.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0700001104
View details for Web of Science ID 000244972700054
View details for PubMedID 17360560
Generation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an important microbicidal agent, is considered to be the main function of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme present in phagocytes. High amounts of MPO are present in neutrophil azurophilic granules, which are mobilized into the phagolysosome vacuole during phagocytosis. MPO is also present in monocytes and macrophages, although to a lesser degree than in neutrophils. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of MPO in murine peritoneal cells using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy (CM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). MPO was observed in macrophages, and surprisingly, we detected MPO in B lymphocytes, specifically in B1-a. MPO was present in cytoplasmic granules, vesicles, mitochondria and the nucleus of murine peritoneal cells. Together, these findings suggest that, in addition to its known microbicidal activity, MPO has a myriad of other unanticipated cellular functions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cellimm.2013.01.002
View details for PubMedID 23434459
Celastrol, an active compound extracted from the root of the Chinese medicine "Thunder of God Vine" (Tripterygium wilfordii), exhibits anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and interest in the therapeutic potential of celastrol is increasing. However, described side effects following treatment are significant and require investigation prior to initiating clinical trials. Here, we investigated the effects of celastrol on the adult murine hematopoietic system.Animals were treated daily with celastrol over a four-day period and peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, and peritoneal cavity were harvested for cell phenotyping. Treated mice showed specific impairment of the development of B cells and erythrocytes in all tested organs. In bone marrow, these alterations were accompanied by decreases in populations of common lymphoid progenitors (CLP), common myeloid progenitors (CMP) and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEP).These results indicate that celastrol acts through regulators of adult hematopoiesis and could be used as a modulator of the hematopoietic system. These observations provide valuable information for further assessment prior to clinical trials.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0035733
View details for Web of Science ID 000305343200053
View details for PubMedID 22545133
The peritoneal cavity (PerC) is a singular compartment where many cell populations reside and interact. Despite the widely adopted experimental approach of intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation, little is known about the behavior of the different cell populations within the PerC. To evaluate the dynamics of peritoneal macrophage (MØ) subsets, namely small peritoneal MØ (SPM) and large peritoneal MØ (LPM), in response to infectious stimuli, C57BL/6 mice were injected i.p. with zymosan or Trypanosoma cruzi. These conditions resulted in the marked modification of the PerC myelo-monocytic compartment characterized by the disappearance of LPM and the accumulation of SPM and monocytes. In parallel, adherent cells isolated from stimulated PerC displayed reduced staining for ?-galactosidase, a biomarker for senescence. Further, the adherent cells showed increased nitric oxide (NO) and higher frequency of IL-12-producing cells in response to subsequent LPS and IFN-? stimulation. Among myelo-monocytic cells, SPM rather than LPM or monocytes, appear to be the central effectors of the activated PerC; they display higher phagocytic activity and are the main source of IL-12. Thus, our data provide a first demonstration of the consequences of the dynamics between peritoneal MØ subpopulations by showing that substitution of LPM by a robust SPM and monocytes in response to infectious stimuli greatly improves PerC effector activity.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0022141
View details for Web of Science ID 000293097300017
View details for PubMedID 21799778
Basophils contribute to anaphylaxis and allergies. We examined the utility of assessing basophil-associated surface antigens (CD11b/CD63/CD123/CD203c/CD294) in characterizing and monitoring subjects with nut allergy.We used flow cytometry to analyze basophils at baseline (without any activation) and after ex vivo stimulation of whole blood by addition of nut or other allergens for 2, 10, and 30 min. We also evaluated whether basophil expression of CD11b/CD63/CD123/CD203c/CD294 was altered in subjects treated with anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) to reduce plasma levels of IgE.We demonstrate that basophil CD203c levels are increased at baseline in subjects with nut allergy compared to healthy controls (13 subjects in each group, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we confirm that significantly increased expression of CD203c occurs on subject basophils when stimulated with the allergen to which the subject is sensitive and can be detected rapidly (10 min of stimulation, n = 11, p < 0.0008). In 5 subjects with severe peanut allergy, basophil CD203c expression following stimulation with peanut allergen was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after 4 and 8 weeks of omalizumab treatment but returned toward pretreatment levels after treatment cessation.Subjects with nut allergy show an increase of basophil CD203c levels at baseline and following rapid ex vivo stimulation with nut allergen. Both can be reduced by omalizumab therapy. These results highlight the potential of using basophil CD203c levels for baseline diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in subjects with nut allergy.
View details for DOI 10.1159/000321824
View details for Web of Science ID 000288529200007
View details for PubMedID 20975283
Dendritic cells (DCs) have been described as initiators and modulators of the immune response. Recently we have shown a predominant production of interleukin-10 cytokine, low levels of interferon-gamma and inefficient T cell proliferation in patients with severe forms of chromoblastomycosis. Chromoblastomycosis starts with subcutaneous inoculation of Fonsecaea pedrosoi into tissue where DCs are the first line of defence against this microorganism. In the present study, the interaction of F. pedrosoi and DCs obtained from patients with chromoblastomycosis was investigated. Our results showed that DCs from patients exhibited an increased expression of human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) and co-stimulatory molecules. In the presence of conidia, the expression of HLA-DR and CD86 was up-regulated by DCs from patients and controls. Finally, we demonstrate the reversal of antigen-specific anergy and a T helper type 1 response mediated by DCs incubated with F. pedrosoi conidea.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03870.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000264065200015
View details for PubMedID 19210522
The host defense mechanism in chromoblastomycosis has not been thoroughly investigated. It has been suggested that cell-mediated immunity in patients with long-standing chromoblastomycosis is somehow impaired. As a result, these individuals became unable to develop an efficient immune reaction. Many studies have shown that monocyte-derived macrophages exhibit critical activities in immunity to microorganisms. Moreover, the ability of cells from the monocytic lineage to process and present antigens, to produce cytokines, and to provide costimulatory signals confirms their pivotal role in the initiation of specific immune responses. In the present study, it was observed that monocytes from patients with a severe form of disease had a higher production of IL-10 and a lower expression of HLA-DR and costimulatory molecules when stimulated with specific antigen or LPS. Immune modulation with recombinant IL-12 or anti-IL-10 can restore the antigen-specific Th1-type immune response in chromoblastomycosis patients by up-regulating HLA-DR and costimulatory molecules in monocytes. Therefore, our data show that monocytes from patients with different clinical forms of chromoblastomycosis present distinct phenotypic and functional profiles. This observation suggests possible mechanisms that control the T cell response and influence their role in the development of pathology.
View details for DOI 10.1189/jlb.0308211
View details for Web of Science ID 000258525500033
View details for PubMedID 18562487
Chromoblastomycosis is a human chronic, often debilitating, suppurative, granulomatus mycosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues beginning after inoculation trauma. It occurs worldwide, but is more frequently observed in tropical countries such as Brazil. Some studies have focused on fungus-host interaction, showing a predominantly cell-mediated immune response, with the activation of macrophages involved in fungus phagocytosis. Immunization with live conidia produced a high influx of CD4 T cells into the draining lymph node. The sensitized T cells proliferate in vitro when restimulated with specific antigen and preferentially produce IFN- gamma. To better characterize the role played by T cells on the chromoblastomycosis infection we used mice deficient for CD4 and CD8. Data determined by CFU counts associated with decreased DTH and IFN-gamma production of infected mice clearly demonstrated that, during experimental F. pedrosoi infection, absence of CD4(+) cells induces a more severe disease.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2006.01846.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000241776300003
View details for PubMedID 17083615
Chromoblastomycosis is characterized by the slow development of polymorphic skin lesions (nodules, verrucas, tumores, plaques and scar tissue). Inside the host, infectious propagules adhere to epithelial cells and differentiate into sclerotic forms, which effectively resist destruction by host effector cells and allow onset of chronic disease. A cellular immune response against fungi is essential to control infection. Amongst the cells of the immune system, macrophages play the most important role in controlling fungal growth. In this study, we show that the fungicidal characteristic of macrophages is dependent on the fungal species that causes chromoblastomycosis. We began by observing that the phagocytic index was higher for Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Rhinocladiella aquaspersa compared with that of other fungi. Complement-mediated phagocytosis was more important for Phialophora verrucosa and R. aquaspersa and was inhibited by mannan when F. pedrosoi and R. aquaspersa conidia were phagocytosed by macrophages. We showed that macrophages killed significantly only R. aquaspersa. We also found that the phagocytosis of fungi has functional consequences for macrophages as phagocytosis resulted in down-modulation of MHC-II and CD80 expression as well as in the inhibition of the basal liberation of NO. However, the inhibition of the basal liberation of NO nor the down-modulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules were observed in the presence of R. aquaspersa.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2006.01804.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000240529400004
View details for PubMedID 16970678
The role of B lymphocytes in protecting the host against pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection is until now, uncertain. A recent study using B lymphocyte-deficient mice suggests that B lymphocytes play a protective role in cryptococcal infection. It has been well established that at least three B cell subsets, B-1a, B-1b, and B-2, are present in the mouse periphery. B-1 cells constitute a minor fraction of the B cell population in the spleen and are not detected in lymph nodes of mice. We demonstrated that B-1 cells migrate to a nonspecific, inflammatory focus and differentiate into macrophage-like cells. However, the role these cells might play on the kinetics and evolution of the inflammatory response and on fungal infection has not yet been established. Based on these data, we decided to investigate the interaction of B-1-derived mononuclear phagocytes (BDMP) with C. neoformans to elucidate the possible influence of this cell in the progression of the disease. In this study, we demonstrated that the BDMP cell internalized C. neoformans and that this process was mediated by complement receptor 3. Thus, our results showed that the BDMP cell was more fungicidal than a macrophage and up-regulated major histocompatibility complex type II and the CD86 costimulatory molecule with the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The phagocytosis of C. neoformans results in the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated death of the fungus, as demonstrated by experiments using NO synthase 2 knockout and aminoguanidine-treated, wild-type mice.
View details for DOI 10.1189/jlb.1005603
View details for Web of Science ID 000243015500005
View details for PubMedID 16670124