Academic Appointments


Journal Articles

  • Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam output factors for a medical linear accelerator PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY Kapur, A., Ma, C. M., Mok, E. C., Findley, D. O., Boyer, A. L. 1998; 43 (12): 3479-3494


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of the Monte Carlo technique to the calculation and analysis of output factors for electron beams used in radiotherapy. The code EGS4/BEAM was used to obtain phase-space files for 6, 12 and 20 MeV clinical electron beams from a scattering-foil linac (Varian Clinac 2100C) for a clinically representative range of applicator and square or rectangular insert combinations. The source-to-surface distance used was 100 cm. The field sizes ranged from 1 x 1 cm2 to 20 x 20 cm2. These phase-space files were analysed to study the intrinsic beam characteristics and used as source input for relative dose and output factor computations in homogeneous water phantoms using the code EGS4/DOSXYZ. The calculated relative central-axis depth-dose and transverse dose profiles at various depths of clinical interest agreed with the corresponding measured dose profiles to within 2% of the maximum dose. Calculated output factors for the fields studied agreed with measured output factors to about 2%. This demonstrated that for the Varian Clinac 2100C linear accelerator, electron beam dose calculations in homogeneous water phantoms can be performed accurately at the 2% level using Monte Carlo simulations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077442900007

    View details for PubMedID 9869026

  • Evaluating the dose to the contralateral breast when using a dynamic wedge versus a regular wedge. Medical dosimetry Weides, C. D., Mok, E. C., Chang, W. C., Findley, D. O., SHOSTAK, C. A. 1995; 20 (4): 287-293


    The incidence of secondary cancers in the contralateral breast after primary breast irradiation is several times higher than the incidence of first time breast cancer. Studies have shown that the scatter radiation to the contralateral breast may play a large part in the induction of secondary breast cancers. Factors that may contribute to the contralateral breast dose may include the use of blocks, the orientation of the field, and wedges. Reports have shown that the use of regular wedges, particularly for the medial tangential field, gives a significantly higher dose to the contralateral breast compared to an open field. This paper compares the peripheral dose outside the field using a regular wedge, a dynamic wedge, and an open field technique. The data collected consisted of measurements taken with patients, solid water and a Rando phantom using a Varian 2300CD linear accelerator. Ion chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), diodes, and films were the primary means for collecting the data. The measurements show that the peripheral dose outside the field using a dynamic wedge is close to that of open fields, and significantly lower than that of regular wedges. This information indicates that when using a medial wedge, a dynamic wedge should be used.

    View details for PubMedID 8703326

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