## Paired t-Testing

## Using the information from the previous page, we can conduct a t-test using the following formula:

## The degrees of freedom of a paired t-test is equivalent to the number of pairs minus one:

## Degrees of Freedom =

n- 1

What is the Null Hypothesis ?

M

_{d}= the mean of the differences between populations 1 and 2.Case Example: Human Growth Hormone and UCLA Students

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